Financial Accounting: Meaning and Objectives

Financial Accounting: Meaning and Objectives

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Chanchal Aggarwal
Senior Executive Content
Updated on May 9, 2024 17:42 IST

Financial accounting is a branch of accounting that focuses on the systematic recording, summarizing, and reporting of a business's financial transactions to external entities. It involves preparing financial statements available for public use and ensuring compliance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).


The most crucial element of a corporation is accounting, also referred to as the “language of business.” The process of creating a document containing all the essential data regarding business decisions and transactions is known as Financial Accounting. Financial accounting (FA) is the backbone of any organization, providing vital information about its financial performance and health.

It involves recording, summarizing, and analyzing financial transactions to produce accurate and reliable financial statements. By understanding the principles and practices of financial accounting, individuals and businesses can make informed decisions, evaluate their financial position, and ensure compliance with regulatory standards.

Table of Content

What is Financial Accounting?

Financial accounting is the process of recording, compiling, and reporting the numerous transactions occurring from corporate operations over time. It is a specific branch of accounting that provides data to prepare financial statements, such as the income statement, cash flow statement, and balance sheet. These statements document the company’s operating performance and summarize these transactions over time.

Financial accountants can find careers in both the public and private sectors. The tasks of a general accountant may differ from those of a financial accountant who works for themselves rather than directly for a firm or organization.

Explore Financial analyst certifications

What is the Objective of Financial Accounting?

Record Financial Transactions: Financial accounting’s main goal is to record a company’s money-related activities. It’s like keeping a detailed diary of where the money comes from and where it goes.

Provide Clear Financial Picture: It aims to create financial statements like balance sheets and income statements. These documents give a clear snapshot of how much money the company has, how much it owes, and how much it’s making.

Ensure Accuracy: Financial accounting strives to ensure all the numbers are correct. Imagine balancing your chequebook to avoid errors – it’s like that but on a larger scale.

Comply with Regulations: Companies must follow rules and laws when reporting their financial information. Financial accounting ensures that the company plays by the rules, like a referee in a game.

Help Decision-Making: Financial accounting data is used by company leaders and investors to make smart decisions. It’s like having a map to choose the best route on a journey.

Attract Investors: Companies use financial statements to show potential investors how well they do. It’s like a report card that can convince others to invest in the business.

Evaluate Performance: Financial accounting lets you compare the company’s performance over time. It’s like looking at your grades from last year to see if you’re improving.

Assess Financial Health: It helps determine if the company is financially healthy or in trouble. It’s like going to the doctor for a check-up to ensure everything’s okay.

Facilitate Accountability: Financial accounting holds everyone in the company accountable for their financial actions. It’s like tracking who spent what in a shared household budget.

Support Transparency: It encourages companies to be open and honest about their financial situation, which builds trust with customers, investors, and the public. It’s like having an open book policy so everyone can see what’s happening.

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Difference Between Cost Accounting and Financial Accounting
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Importance of Financial Accounting

Within a company, FA serves a variety of objectives and is crucial for making decisions. Businesses could only keep track of their finances with financial accounting, impacting how well they could function. Here are some of the advantages of FA for a business:

Check out- Top Finance Interview Questions and Answers

1. Analysis and Comparison of Financial Data

Commercial business owners can study and research the competition and investment prospects using FA data, comparison, and analysis.

Accounting general principles govern financial accounting. Thus, a pattern in gathering financial data and information for numerous enterprises appears. This accounting then helps calculate financial ratios based on the company’s data, followed by comparing competitors in the same industry or with standard ratios.

2. Making Estimates and Budgets

It is essential because it enables businesses to develop budgets. Making a budget requires knowledge of your finances. Companies can get this crucial information from financial accounting, enabling them to see where their money is utilized. This assists businesses in deciding which sectors require additional funding.

Moreover, it aids businesses with future estimates. You can forecast your company’s financial performance for the upcoming year by knowing how it has performed in the past. Using this information, you can avoid making the same mistakes in the future and maximize your opportunities by identifying where your company has the greatest potential.

4. Information Dissemination to Internal Users

For internal communication, businesses also employ financial accounting. The financial staff and employees of a company are involved in internal communication. For various reasons, a company’s members must know how the firm is doing. First, understanding a company’s financial situation can help employees feel secure. Since the business is performing well, there shouldn’t be any downsizing or layoffs.

Additionally, by being transparent, employers encourage their staff to feel more invested in the company’s success. Employees may continue to put in extra effort if they know how well the business performs. Another reason staff must be aware of the company’s financial situation is that meeting financial targets might result in bonuses in some organizations.

3. Publication of Information to a Wide Audience

It helps business owners convey accounting information to external parties, also known as the external audience of financial data, which includes individuals and entities that conduct business with them but are not a part of their operations. 

Before doing business with a company, these outside entities want to ensure its integrity. Companies can provide these organizations with a record of their financials through FA, which identifies their capital and dependability to make payments.

5. Paying Taxes and Following Regulations

Financial accounting is crucial for a company’s success, following rules, and avoiding legal problems. This relates to taxes for businesses in particular. When paying taxes, it is usually advantageous to organize your financial data, but businesses should be mindful of their tax compliance. Certain expenses are tax deductible for a business, and some taxes must be paid earlier than others. Accounting for finances assists companies in filing their taxes accurately and on time, avoiding costly audits and other legal entanglements.

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Financial Statements

A financial statement or report is a document that compiles and analyses all of the financial data within an organization. Accountants often generate this document depending on the organisation at the end of each quarter, business period, or year. This data is organized into three major statements by financial accounting.

1. Income Statement

The income statement, often known as the profit and loss statement, pertains to a particular time frame (a quarter or a year). In an income statement, 

 Revenues-Income= Net Income

As a general rule, revenue is recognized when goods or services are sold, not when cash is received, as dictated by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).

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2. Balance Sheet

A balance sheet is a statement that contains assets and liabilities at the end of each accounting period. The balance sheet is a financial snapshot taken at a certain time. On a balance sheet,

Assets= Liabilities + Owners Equity

The amount of funding given by operations (retained earnings not dispersed to stockholders) and by stockholders who reinvest through contributed capital is known as shareholders’ equity.

3. Cash Flow Statement

A cash flow statement displays the cash flows from investing, operating, and financing activities. This statement shows the earnings retained by the company over time and the dividends paid from earnings to shareholders. In contrast to the income statement, a cash flow statement shows how cash flows in and out of business over a specific period.

Check out accounting interview questions

Limitations of Financial Accounting

Doesn’t Capture Everything: Financial accounting mainly deals with monetary transactions. It doesn’t account for non-financial factors like employee satisfaction or the value of a company’s brand.

Historical Data: It relies on past financial data, which may not accurately reflect a company’s financial health or future prospects.

Estimations: Some values, like depreciation or bad debt provisions, are based on estimates. These estimations can be inaccurate and affect financial statements.

No Individual Details: It usually summarizes data for the whole company. You won’t find individual employee salaries or the cost of a single product in financial statements.

No Future Predictions: Financial accounting doesn’t predict the future. It’s a record of what’s happened in the past, so it can’t tell you where the company is heading.

No Non-Monetary Information: It doesn’t consider valuable non-monetary assets like intellectual property or skilled employees, which can be crucial for a company’s success.

Not Always Comparable: Companies may use different accounting methods, which makes it challenging to compare financial statements across industries or time periods.

No Real-Time Updates: Financial statements are typically prepared at the end of a reporting period, so they don’t provide real-time information about a company’s financial status.


The framework for financial accounting establishes the guidelines for creating financial statements. According to these rules, a business must transform its operations into several frequently used and standardized financial reports. Accounting for finances is essential to ensuring that businesses are honest about their operations and held accountable for their performance. Hence, choose the right course and certification to learn and grow your career in financial accounting. 


What is financial accounting?

Financial accounting is the process of recording, summarizing, and reporting financial transactions of a business. It involves preparing financial statements such as balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements to provide a clear picture of the company's financial performance.

Why is financial accounting important?

Financial accounting is essential for several reasons. It helps stakeholders, such as investors and creditors, assess the financial health and stability of a business. It also aids in making informed decisions, tracking financial progress, and ensuring compliance with accounting regulations.

What are the basic principles of financial accounting?

The basic principles of financial accounting include the accrual principle, matching principle, consistency principle, and cost principle. These principles guide the recognition, measurement, and reporting of financial transactions to maintain consistency, comparability, and reliability in financial statements.

What is the difference between financial accounting and managerial accounting?

Financial accounting focuses on preparing external financial statements for external stakeholders, while managerial accounting concentrates on providing internal financial information to aid in managerial decision-making. Financial accounting is more standardized and governed by accounting principles, whereas managerial accounting is tailored to meet specific management needs.

What is the role of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) in financial accounting?

GAAP provides a framework of accounting principles, standards, and procedures that guide financial accounting practices. It ensures consistency, comparability, and reliability in financial reporting, allowing stakeholders to make meaningful comparisons and assessments across different companies and industries.

About the Author
Chanchal Aggarwal
Senior Executive Content

Chanchal is a creative and enthusiastic content creator who enjoys writing research-driven, audience-specific and engaging content. Her curiosity for learning and exploring makes her a suitable writer for a variety ... Read Full Bio