Features of Java Programming Language

Features of Java Programming Language

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Rashmi
Rashmi Karan
Manager - Content
Updated on Jan 23, 2024 14:16 IST

Java is one of the most popular and commonly used programming languages. It is widely recognized for its performance, platform independence, and security. We have tried to explain the features of Java in detail. Let’s find out.

features of java programming

 

Java is a server-side language for back-end development, Android development, desktop computing, games, and numerical computing. Various features of Java contribute to its wide use and popularity. In this blog, we have tried to explain the features of Java programming language to understand why programmers, software developers, and data science professionals choose Java.

Features of Java

Below, we have some of the most important features of Java programming:

1. Inspired by C and C++

Java is inspired by C and C++. The syntax of Java is similar to these languages, but the languages are quite different. Java inherits many features from C and C++. Compared to C++, Java code runs a bit slower, but it is more portable and offers better security features.

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2. Object-Oriented

Java is a fully object-oriented language, unlike C++, which is semi-object-oriented. It supports every OOP concept, such as Abstraction, Encapsulation, Inheritance, and Polymorphism. Java programs are developed using classes and objects. Another notable feature is that the main() function is defined under a class in Java.

Read on important concepts such as Conditional Statements in Java.

For example

Consider a real-world concept: a Car. We can represent a car as a class in an object-oriented language like Java. The class serves as a blueprint for creating individual car objects.

Code


 
class Car {
// Attributes (fields) of the class
private String color;
private String brand;
private int speed;
// Constructor to initialize objects
public Car(String color, String brand) {
this.color = color;
this.brand = brand;
this.speed = 0;
}
// Methods (behavior)
public void accelerate() {
speed += 10;
System.out.println("The car accelerates to " + speed + " mph.");
}
public void brake() {
speed -= 10;
System.out.println("The car decelerates to " + speed + " mph.");
}
// Getter for color attribute
public String getColor() {
return color;
}
// Getter for brand attribute
public String getBrand() {
return brand;
}
}
public class Main {
public static void main(String[] args) {
// Creating an object of Car
Car myCar = new Car("Blue", "Toyota");
// Accessing object's methods
System.out.println("My car is a " + myCar.getColor() + " " + myCar.getBrand() + ".");
myCar.accelerate();
myCar.brake();
}
}
Copy code

Output

My car is a Blue Toyota.
The car accelerates to 10 mph.
The car decelerates to 0 mph.

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Explanation

  1. Class and Objects: The Car class is a blueprint, and we created an object, myCar, from it.
  2. Attributes/Fields: The Car class has colour, brand, and speed attributes.
  3. Methods: We defined behaviours for the Car class, such as accelerate() and brake().
  4. Encapsulation: By making the color, brand and speed fields private, we ensure they can’t be accessed directly from outside the class. We provide public methods (getters) to access them, encapsulating the inner workings.
  5. Constructor: The Car class has a constructor to initialize new objects with specific values.

This example shows key object-oriented principles such as class and object creation, encapsulation, and methods that define the behaviour of all fundamental to Java’s object-oriented nature.

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3. Platform Independent

Java’s platform independence means that Java programs compiled on one machine or operating system can be executed on any other machine or operating system without modifications. It is also called an Architecture Neutral Language.

Java supports WORA (Write Once, Run Anywhere), meaning programmers can develop applications in one operating system and run on any other without any modification.

You can learn how becoming platform independent was a revolution back in the 90s when you read up on the history of Java.

Java source code is compiled using Java Compiler. The compiler converts the source code into an intermediate code called the byte code. The JVM (Java Virtual Machine) further converts this code into the machine-dependent form. The JVM can execute byte code on any platform or operating system on which it is present.

4. Compiled and Interpreted

Java offers both compilation and interpretation of programs. It combines the power of compiled languages and the flexibility of interpreted languages.

When a Java program is created, the Java compiler (javac) compiles the Java source code into byte code. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is an interpreter that converts byte code to machine code, which is portable and can be executed on any operating system.

5. Multi-Threaded

Java supports multithreading programming. A thread is an independent process to execute a set of statements. The term multi-threaded refers to creating multiple threads to handle multiple tasks simultaneously.

JVM uses multiple threads to execute different blocks of code of the same program in parallel. The multithreading feature allows programmers to write programs to do multiple tasks simultaneously. It improves CPU and main memory utilization as the application does not need to finish one task before starting the other.

Here are some of its advantages:

  • Maximum utilization of resources
  • Saves time
  • Saves cost
  • Threads are independent, so one thread does not affect the other
  • Enhances the performance of complex applications

6. Dynamic

Java is more dynamic compared to C and C++. It can adapt to its evolving environment. It allows programmers to link new class libraries, objects, and methods dynamically. Java programs can have a large amount of run-time information that one can use to resolve accesses to objects.

7. Robust

Java is a robust language that can handle run-time errors by checking the code during the compilation and runtime. The JVM will not be passed directly to the underlying system if it identifies any runtime error. Instead, it will immediately terminate the program and stop it from causing any harm to the system. Java has a strong memory management system. It also supports the concepts of garbage collection and exception handling.

8. Secure

Java is a secure language that ensures that programs cannot gain access to memory locations without authorization. It has access modifiers to check memory access. Java also ensures that no viruses enter an applet. Java’s bytecode verifier checks the code blocks for any illegal code that violates the access right. It also does not allow programmers to create pointers explicitly.

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9. High Performance

Java offers high performance using the JIT (Just In Time) compiler. The compiler only compiles that method which is being called. The JIT enhances the performance of interpreting byte code by caching interpretations.

10. Portable

Due to the concept of Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA) and platform independence, Java is a portable language. By writing once through Java, developers can get the same result on every machine. It is also very portable to various operating systems and architectures. Java run-time system is written in the ANSI C with a clean portability boundary, which is POSIX-compliant.

11. Automatic Garbage Collection

The most common and critical problems in C/C++ were memory leaks. FYI, memory leaks are a problem wherein a piece of memory that is no longer in use fails to be freed. This is because garbage collection has to be done manually. However, Java supports automatic Garbage collection. It keeps checking over such unused memory spaces and frees them automatically.

Conclusion

So, now we know what features make Java a popular and useful programming language among programmers, software developers, and data science professionals. It has a flexible design that enables developers to write code that can run on any machine. The impressive features of this versatile programming language enable programmers to create scalable and high-performance programs. We hope this article helped you understand what the features of Java are.

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FAQs

Is there a demand for Java in 2024?

The demand for Java is booming across industries, and professionals with proficiency in Java can set themselves up for a rewarding career. Take up an online Java course today to take the first step to begin your Java journey.

Is Java worth learning in 2024?

Yes, Java is worth learning in 2024. Java is one of the most popular and commonly used programming languages. Due to its user-friendliness and flexibility, it is used to develop platforms and web applications.

Is Java easy to learn for beginners?

Yes, Java is easy to understand compared to other programming languages. Java has a syntax similar to English. This is why it is easy to learn and understand. If you know the basic concept of OOP Java, it would be much easier to learn Java.

What is Java used for?

Java has numerous applications. It is used for creating applications for different platforms. Some of the most common uses of Java include Android app development, enterprise software development, big data analytics, and programming of hardware devices. Java is also used for desktop, mobile, and numerical computing.

Which companies use Java?

Numerous programming languages are available. Yet, due to its excellent features, Java continues to be one of the most popular and widely used programming languages. Some top companies that use Java programming language include Uber, Netflix, Google, Instagram, Amazon, Airbnb, Pinterest, Spotify, Linkedin, and Flipkart.

Which is faster Java or Python?

Java is faster than Python in terms of speed. This is because Java is a statically typed and compiled language that takes less time to execute a code. On the other hand, Python is a dynamically typed and interpreted language that has a slower runtime.

Where can I learn Java for free?

There are many options available to learn Java free online. You can explore Java Tutorials on YouTube or read free online books on Java. You can also take free online Java courses from platforms such as Udemy, Coursera, and edX learn Java.

What are memory leaks?

Memory leaks are a problem wherein a piece of memory that is no longer in use fails to be freed.

About the Author
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Rashmi Karan
Manager - Content

Rashmi is a postgraduate in Biotechnology with a flair for research-oriented work and has an experience of over 13 years in content creation and social media handling. She has a diversified writing portfolio and aim... Read Full Bio