Top IoT Interview Questions and Answers for 2023

Top IoT Interview Questions and Answers for 2023

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Updated on May 26, 2023 18:14 IST

If you are appearing for an IoT interview, here’s a list of the 15 most commonly asked IoT interview questions with answers.

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This list of IoT interview questions is curated for freshers as well as experienced professionals to help you crack your upcoming IoT developer job interview. These questions cover the basic as well as advanced concepts of the Internet of things and will showcase your expertise in the subject.  

Top IoT Interview Questions and Answers

Below is the list of most important IoT interview questions that might be asked in your next IoT interview.

Q1. What is the Internet of Things (IoT)?

Ans. Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the network of physical devices or objects called ‘things’. These devices are embedded with sensors, electronics, software, etc., which enable them to gather data and share it with other internet-connected devices and systems without human interactions. The term ‘things’ in the Internet of Things includes everything in our day-to-day life which is accessed or connected through the internet, like smartphones, wearables, electronic appliances, etc. 

Interested in learning more about IoT? Read our post – what is IoT?

Q2. What are the different components of IoT systems?

Ans. IoT systems consist of four main components:

1. Sensors

Sensors collect data from their surroundings. This data could be a simple temperature reading, GPS, accelerometer, or even a complex one like a live video feature on a social media platform. Thus, sensors are the devices that sense the environment and perform multiple tasks. Multiple sensors can be part of a device that does more than just sense things, like a smartphone. 

2. Connectivity

The data collected by sensors is sent to the cloud through different ways like Bluetooth, WiFi, cellular, satellite, Ethernet, low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN), etc. Now the devices can interact freely with each other in a transparent manner. These connectivity options differ from each other in terms of range, bandwidth, and power consumption. Different IoT applications use different connectivity options depending on their needs. 

3. Data Processing

After the data is gathered by the sensors and gets to the cloud, the software starts processing the collected information and data to perform the required tasks. The tasks could be as simple as checking if the temperature reading is within the acceptable range. It could be as complex as using the computer vision on the video to identify objects

This phase includes different techniques like classification, calculations, and sorting to get meaningful information from the data received. Data processing software enhances the automation in IoT devices. 

4. User Interface

User Interface is the means by which a user and an IoT device interact. This phase involves making the information useful to the end-user. It can be done by sending an alert to the user via text, notification, or email. 

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Q3. What are the different types of sensors in IoT?

Ans. The different types of sensors in IoT are: 

Sensor Function
Temperature sensor Measures the amount of heat energy in a source. Detects temperature changes and converts them into data.
Proximity sensor It is responsible for the non-contact detection of objects near the sensor.
Pressure sensor Measures the pressure changes in gases and liquids.
Humidity sensor  Measure the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere of air or other gases.
Motion detection sensor It detects the physical movement (motion) in a given area and transforms motion into an electric signal.
Optical Sensor  Measures a physical quantity of light and converts rays of light into electrical signals.
Smoke sensor It detects smoke (airborne particulates and gases) and its level.
Accelerometers Measures an object’s linear acceleration based on vibration.
Gyroscope It measures an angular position based on the principle of the rigidity of space.
Infrared sensor It detects characteristics in the surroundings by either emitting or detecting infrared radiation.
Gas sensor It monitors changes in the air quality and detects the presence of various gases.

Check out the top online IoT Courses here. 

Q4. What are the top security risks related to IoT?

Ans. Following are some of the security risks that revolve around IoT: 

1. Privacy

IoT devices are vulnerable to hacking. Many IoT devices collect personal information and some of them send this personal information across the network without any encryption. This information can be easily traced and read by hackers. Cloud endpoints could also be used by hackers to attack servers. 

2. Web interface

Simple default passwords pose a threat when it comes to the user web interface. The use of weak passwords on the web interface may enable hackers to easily identify accounts of users and misuse them. 

Check out the Top Security Courses For IT Professionals

3. Rogue IoT Devices

Rogue IoT devices are just plain counterfeit malicious devices that are installed in secured networks without authorization. Some examples of rogue IoT devices are Raspberry Pi and WiFi Pineapple. A rogue device either replaces the original IoT device or appears as a member of a group to gather sensitive information. These devices break the network perimeter.

4. Insufficient testing & Lack of updates

The IoT market is fast-paced, which is why many companies or manufacturers are in a hurry to create and release their products and software without sufficiently testing them. Some of them also fail in providing timely software updates.

Compared to other devices like smartphones, IoT devices continue to be used without the necessary updates, which can enable hackers to steal sensitive information. Thus, sufficient testing and timely updates are critical for maintaining security on IoT devices. They should be updated right after new vulnerabilities are identified. 

5. Lack of user Knowledge & Awareness

Since IoT is a new technology, people still do not know much about it. One of the biggest security threats related to IoT is the user’s lack of knowledge and awareness of the IoT functionality. This puts everybody at risk.

Explore the concept of ethical hacking, read our blog – what is Ethical Hacking?

Q5. Explain IoT Protocols. Name some of the popular IoT Protocols.

Ans. IoT protocols are a set of rules that guide how data gets sent to the internet. They ensure optimum security to the data being exchanged between connected IoT devices. 

Some of the popular IoT protocols are: 

Layer Protocol 
Application layer
  • Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)
  • Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT)
  • Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)
Transport layer
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Network layer
  • 6LoWPAN
  • IP
Datalink layer
  • LPWAN
  • IEEE 802.15.4
Physical layer
  • Near field communication (NFC)
  • Radio frequency identification (RFID)
  • Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
  • Ethernet

Q6. Name the different types of CAN Frames.

Ans. The different types of frames in CAN are:

  • Data frame
  • Remote frame
  • Error frame
  • Overload frame

Q7. Which databases are suitable for IoT?

Ans. The databases that are suitable for IoT and can store data of IoT applications include:

  • influx DB
  • MongoDB
  • Apache Cassandra
  • RethinkDB
  • Sqlite

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Q8. Explain the Bluegiga APX4 protocol.

Ans. Bluegiga APx4 protocol is a low-power wireless System-on-Module that supports the WiFI and BLE platforms. Based on a 450MHz ARM9 processor, this protocol is an excellent platform for wireless gateways.

Q9. Explain Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).

Ans. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a modulation technique used in communication systems. It produces variable-width pulses that signify the amplitude of an analog input signal. It helps in encoding the amplitude of a signal into a pulse width/duration of another signal for transmission.

Q10. Name the different types of antennas used for IoT devices.

Ans. The different types of antennas used for IoT devices are:

  • Wire Antenna
  • PCB Antenna
  • Chip Antenna
  • Whip Antenna
  • Proprietary Antenna

Q11. What is the difference between IoT and IIoT?

Ans. The differences between IoT and IIoT are: 

IoT IIoT
IoT stands for Internet of Things  IIoT stands for Industrial Internet of Things.
It focuses on consumer-oriented gadgets like wearables, home appliances, thermostats, etc.  It supports industry-oriented applications like manufacturing, power plants, etc.
Deals with small-scale networks. IIoT deals with large-scale networks.
IoT works on a high volume of data. It handles medium to high range data.
It is less reliable. IIoT is highly reliable.
IoT makes consumer’s life more convenient and easier.  It works to increase safety and efficiency in production facilities.

Q12. What is Raspberry Pi?

Ans. Raspberry Pi is a small, low-cost, card-sized computer with a set of features like General Purpose Input Output (GPIO), pins, WiFi, and Bluetooth that can be used to connect, control, and communicate with external electronic devices. The combination of IoT applications and Raspberry Pi enables businesses to embrace technology more efficiently.

Also Read: 5 Best Cyber Security Programming Languages to Learn

Q13. What is Arduino? What are its features?

Ans. Arduino is a platform that offers easy-to-use hardware and software to create electronics projects. It has a microcontroller (physical programmable circuit board) and a piece of software that can be used to write and upload computer code to the physical board. Arduino boards read inputs like a light on a sensor and turn them into an output like activating a motor.

Some of the features of Arduino are: 

  1. Cross-platform – The Arduino IDE is designed to run on different operating systems, like Windows, macOS, and Linux.
  2. Open source and extensible software and hardware.
  3. Easy-to-use for beginners.
  4. Inexpensive compared to other microcontroller platforms.

Q14. What are the differences between Arduino and Raspberry Pi?

Ans. The differences between Arduino and Raspberry Pi are: 

Arduino Raspberry Pi
Arduino is a microcontroller board. Raspberry Pi is a microprocessor-based mini computer (SBC).
CPU architecture: 8 bit CPU architecture: 64 bit
It has 2kB (Kilobytes) of RAM It has 1GB of RAM
Arduino is very easy to use It is more complicated to use than an Arduino.
Arduino can be programmed using C or C++ programming languages. Python, Scratch, Ruby, C, C++ can be used for developing applications.
It is used for running a single task repeatedly. It can perform multiple tasks simultaneously

 Learn about various Programming Courses, Skills and Careers, read our blog  – what is Programming?

Q15. What are the differences between IoT and M2M?

Ans. The differences between IoT and M2M are:

IoT (Internet of Things) M2M (Machine to Machine)
Devices are connected over the network using various communication types. It uses a point-to-point connection. Two or more machines communicate with each other using a wired or wireless mechanism.
Internet connection is required for communication. M2M devices are not dependent on the Internet.
Data is shared between other applications. Data sharing is limited to the communicating parties.
More scalable. It has limited scalability options.
It uses integrated devices, applications, and data across varying standards. M2M uses isolated systems of devices having the same standards.
Supports open API integrations. Does not support open API integrations.
Example: Smart wearables, Big data Example: Data and Information, sensors

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Q16. What is edge computing in the context of IoT?

Edge computing refers to the practice of processing data near the edge of the network, closer to the IoT devices generating the data. Instead of sending all data to a central cloud server, edge computing enables local processing and analysis, reducing latency and bandwidth requirements. It allows for real-time decision-making, improved efficiency, and reduced dependence on cloud connectivity.

Q17. How does IoT contribute to industrial automation and the concept of Industry 4.0?

IoT plays a pivotal role in industrial automation and the concept of Industry 4.0 by connecting machines, sensors, and systems to enable real-time monitoring, predictive maintenance, and process optimization. IoT facilitates the integration of operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT), enabling advanced analytics, remote monitoring, and intelligent decision-making

Conclusion

This brings us to the end of the IoT interview questions blog. We hope these interview questions on IoT will help you ace your interviews.

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