The primary difference between verification and validation is that Verification checks if the product is built right, while Validation checks if the right product is built. Apart from this, Verification is Static Testing, but Validation is Dynamic Testing.
Verification and validation are two important concepts in software testing. However, they can often be misunderstood. So, to clarify the confusion and provide a detailed explanation, we will delve into the difference between verification and validation in software testing in this article. But before we dive into that, let's take a quick look at the topics we will cover in this article.
Table of Content (TOC)
- Verification and Validation Difference
- What is Verification?
- What is Validation?
- Key Differences Between Verification and Validation
Difference Between Verification and Validation
For better clarity and understanding, let's go through verification and validation differences in a tabular format.
|Static process of checking documents, design, code, and program to see if software is built according to requirements.
|Dynamic process of testing and validating the actual product to meet the exact needs of the customer.
|Type of Testing
|Static (does not involve code execution).
|Dynamic (involves code execution).
|Reviews, walkthroughs, inspections, desk-checking.
|Black Box Testing, White Box Testing, Non-functional testing.
|Conformity to specifications.
|Meeting customer requirements and expectations.
|Finds bugs early in development.
|Finds bugs not caught by verification.
|Application and software architecture, specification, design, database.
|Actual software product.
|Quality assurance team.
|Testing team with QA involvement.
|Sequence in Development
|Performed before validation.
|Nature of Checks
|Checking of documents/files by humans.
|Execution of program by computer.
|Ensures correct implementation of functions.
|Ensures software is traceable to customer requirements.
|Aligning with customer and business requirements at each stage.
|Functioning across different conditions and environments.
|Defect Detection Rate
|Finds about 50-60% of defects.
|Finds about 20-30% of defects.
|Based on reviewer's opinion, may vary.
|Based on factual testing, often stable.
|Process, standards, guidelines.
|Does not require devices, platforms, browsers, OS.
|Best executed using real browsers, devices, OS.
|Are we building the product right?
|Are we building the right product?
What is Verification?
Verification in software testing is the process of evaluating software at different development stages to ensure it meets the specified requirements. This process evaluates whether the software is being built correctly according to the design documents and standards set for the project.
Verification involves a series of checks and reviews conducted throughout the software development lifecycle. It includes activities like:
- Inspecting design documents
- Performing static code analysis
- Conducting walkthroughs and reviews,
- Ensuring that the software adheres to predefined standards and guidelines, etc.
The primary goal of verification is to identify issues and discrepancies early in the development process, thus preventing significant problems in the later stages. In lay terms, the verification process answers, "Are we building the product right?"
What is Validation?
Validation in software testing is the process of evaluating the final software product to ensure it meets the intended use and fulfils the requirements of the end-users. This process focuses on verifying that the right product has been built as per the user's needs and expectations.
Validation involves a series of activities where the software is tested in real-world scenarios to confirm its functionality, performance, and suitability for the intended audience. This process includes various forms of dynamic testing, such as:
The primary objective of validation is to ensure that the software does what it is supposed to do and is usable in its intended environment. In lay terms, the verification process answers, "Are we building the right product?"
Key Differences Between Verification and Validation
Here are the key differences between verification and validation:
- Verification is static (no code execution), while Validation is dynamic (involves code execution).
- The verification process checks if the software meets design specifications. Meanwhile, the validation process ensures the software meets user needs and expectations.
- Verification uses reviews and inspections. On the other hand, validation involves actual testing like Black Box and White Box Testing.
- When comparing validation and verification based on the stage in development, verification occurs before validation in the development process.
- Verification focuses on design and development aspects. In contrast, validation targets the final operational software product.
- The QA team conducts verification, whereas validation is primarily carried out by the testing team with the QA team.
When should I use Validate and Verify?
These are independent procedures that must be used together to ensure that a system or application meets requirements and specifications and is fit for purpose. Validation can be used as an internal process in development, scaling, or production environments. Verification, on the other hand, should be used as an external process to accept conformance from stakeholders.
UAT (User Acceptance Testing) Validation or Validation?
UAT (User Acceptance Testing) is considered verification. Validating that a system is "fit for purpose" is the actual validation of the system or application being run by real users.
What is Verification in Software Testing?
Verification is the process of evaluating intermediate products in the software development life cycle to verify that the creation of the final product is on the right track.