Top 80+ Cybersecurity Interview Questions and Answers

Top 80+ Cybersecurity Interview Questions and Answers

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Anshuman
Anshuman Singh
Senior Executive - Content
Updated on Mar 23, 2023 11:33 IST

With the increasing number of cybersecurity threats, companies are forced to protect their data, networks and resources from potential attacks. As a result, skilled cybersecurity professionals who can identify weak points, develop strategies to minimize risks and respond promptly to security incidents are in high demand.

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If you are planning to make a career in cybersecurity field, it is important to be prepared for job interviews and have a good understanding of the basics of the field. If you are planning to appear for a cybersecurity interview, then this article will provide you with some of the top cybersecurity interview questions to help you to succeed in your upcoming interview. 

Explore Popular Cybersecurity Courses 

But before we begin exploring, top 80+ cybersecurity interview questions, let’s go through the list of topics, listed under the table of contents (TOC) that we will be covering in this article. 

Table of Contents (TOC) 

Basic level Cybersecurity Interview Questions 

Q1. What is cybersecurity? 

Ans. Cybersecurity refers to a way to keep your computer systems and web spaces safe. Cybersecurity includes protecting computer devices such as hardware, software and data, internet-connected systems, computer systems, networks, devices, programs, and data from cyberattacks. 

For more information, you can also explore: What is Cybersecurity? 

Q2. What are the different types of cybersecurity? 

Ans. Different types of cybersecurity are – 

  • Application security 
  • Cloud security 
  • Data security 
  • Mobile security 
  • Network security 
  • Database and infrastructure security 
  • Disaster recovery/business continuity planning 
  • Endpoint security 
  • End-user education 
  • Identity management 

For more information, you can also explore: Types of Cybersecurity 

Explore courses related to Cybersecurity: 

Cyber Law Courses  Ethical Hacking Courses 
Cloud Technologies Courses  Programming Courses 

Q3. Can you tell us the difference between a threat, vulnerability, and risk? 

Ans. These are mixed up terms that need to be clearly defined – 

  • Threat – Threats are cybersecurity events that have the potential to pose danger to information or systems. 
  • Vulnerability – This refers to weaknesses in any system. Any system can be exploited through a vulnerability 
  • Risk – Often confused with a treat, the risk is mainly a combination of threats and losses, usually monetary ones. 

Q4. What is the difference between active and passive attacks? 

Ans. The main difference between active and passive attacks is that in an active attack, a hacker tries to change data or information by attacking a computer. In a passive attack, a hacker looks at the data or information without changing it. 

Q5. What is a digital signature? 

Ans. Digital signatures are similar to electronic fingerprints and they use a standard format known as Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Digital signatures help confirm who signed a document and ensure that the document has not been altered or falsified. 

For more information, you can also explore: What is a digital signature? 

Q6. What is data leakage? 

Ans. It refers to an unauthorized data transmission, either electronically or physically from an organization to any external destination or recipient. The most common forms of data leakage are through web, email, and mobile data storage devices. 

You can also explore: What Is a Data Breach and How to Prevent It? 

Q7. Which factors contribute to data leakage? 

Ans. The most commonly experienced factors are – 

  • Outdated data security 
  • Human Error 
  • Technology error 
  • Malware 
  • Misuse 
  • Physical theft of data 
  • System misconfiguration 
  • Inadequate security control for shared drives 
  • Corrupt hard-drive 
  • Unprotected data back up 

Q8. How to prevent data leakage? 

Ans. Since it’s a serious issue, it needs a proper strategy to tackle. Data Loss Prevention (DLP) is a practice adopted by organizations to safeguard their data. Under this practice, users are not allowed to send confidential or sensitive information outside of the enterprise network. This requires businesses to distinguish the rules that classify confidential and sensitive information such that it doesn’t get disclosed maliciously or even accidentally by any user. 

Q9. What are the ways that a malicious user would crack any password? 

Ans. The most common password cracking techniques are – 

  • Dictionary attacks 
  • Brute forcing attacks 
  • Hybrid attacks 
  • Syllable attacks 
  • Rule based attacks 
  • Rainbow table attacks 
  • Phishing 
  • Social engineering 
  • Shoulder surfing 
  • Spidering 
  • Guessing 

Q10. Name some of the common password cracking tools. 

Ans. It is a part of ethical hacking, and some of the commonly used password cracking tools are – 

  • Aircrack-NG 
  • Brutus 
  • Cain and Abel 
  • DaveGrohl 
  • ElcomSoft 
  • Hashcat 
  • Hydra 
  • John the Ripper 
  • RainbowCrack 
  • Wfuzz 

Also Read: Top 10 Penetration Testing Tools of 2023 

Q11. What is the main difference between virus and worm? 

Ans. A virus and a worm are two types of harmful computer programs. The difference between them is how they spread. A virus needs people to open a file to spread from one computer to another. But a worm can spread by itself without needing anyone to do anything. Worms can move between computers using networks. 

For more information, you can also explore: Difference Between Virus and Worm 

Q12. What is Cryptography? 

Ans. Cryptography is a combination of two words, which are “crypt” meaning “hidden” and “graphy” meaning “writing.” This is a practice of securing information and communication using codes, and can only be accessible to those who are authorized to read and process it. 

Q13. What are the different types of cryptography? 

Ans. There are three types of cryptography, such as: 

  • Hash Function 
  • Symmetric Key Cryptography 
  • Asymmetric Key Cryptography 

For more information, you can also explore: What are Different Types of Cryptography? 

Q14. What is public key cryptography? 

Ans. Public key cryptography is a way to keep information safe by using two different keys. One key is private and kept secret, while the other is public and can be shared with anyone. The public key is used to scramble the information so that no one else can read it. Only the person with the matching private key can unscramble the information and read it. This helps protect information from being seen by people who shouldn’t have access to it. Public key cryptography is also known as asymmetric key cryptography

Q15. What is a Firewall? 

Ans. A firewall is a network security system. It manages the network traffic using a defined set of security rules, and prevents remote access and content filtering. Firewalls are used to protect the systems or networks from viruses, worms, malware, etc.    

Q16. What are the different types of firewalls? 

Ans. There are various different types of firewalls, such as: 

  • Cloud firewall 
  • Proxy firewalls 
  • Software firewall 
  • Hardware firewall 
  • Circuit-level gateways 
  • Packet filtering firewalls 
  • Next-generation firewalls  
  • Stateful inspection firewalls 

For more information, you can also explore: What are the Different Types of Firewalls? 

Q17. What are cyber attacks? 

Ans. Cyber attacks are potential security issues that are created and exploited by malicious users to access or destroy sensitive information, to extort money from users, or to hamper the functioning of the normal business processes. 

Q18. What is ethical hacking? 

Ans. Ethical Hacking is a method to evaluate the security of systems and identify vulnerabilities in them. It helps to determine if any unauthorized access or other malicious activity is happening in a system, which may result in data or financial loss, or other potential damages. 

Q19. What is an asynchronous transmission? 

Ans. Asynchronous transmission is a serial mode of transmission. It is the process of data transmission, where every character is a self-contained unit. Each character in asynchronous transmission has its start and stop bits, along with an uneven interval between them. 

Q20. What is synchronous transmission? 

Ans. Synchronous transmission refers to continuous data streaming in the form of signals, accompanied by regular timing signals. These signals are generated by the external clocking mechanisms and ensure that senders and receivers are in synchrony. 

Q21. What are the different types of transmission media? 

Ans. Transmission media has two broad types – 

  • Guided media (wired) 
  • Unguided media (wireless) 

Q22. What are the types of errors? 

Ans. There are two categories of errors – 

  • Single-bit error – One-bit error per data unit 
  • Burst error – Two or more bits errors per data unit 

Q23. How would you differentiate between Firewall and Antivirus? 

Ans. A firewall prevents any unauthorized access in the private networks as intranets. However, it does not protect against viruses, spyware, or adware. In contrast, an antivirus is software that protects a computer from any malicious software, virus, spyware, or adware. 

Q24. What are the different types of authentications? 

Ans. Authentication is a method to verify the credentials of users that request access to a system, network, or device. The different types of authentications are:  

  • Single-factor authentication – it is the simplest and most common way of authentication. This method requires only one verification method, such as a password or a security pin, to grant access to a system. 
  • Two-factor authentication (2FA) – it requirees a second factor to verify a user’s identity. In this method, you will have to enter the username, password, and OTP or PIN for verification. 
  • Multi-factor authentication (MFA) – it needs two or more independent ways to identify a user, such as codes generated from the user’s smartphone, Captcha tests, fingerprints, or facial recognition.  
  • Bio-metric authentication (BFA) – it requires the username, password, and biometric verification, such as voice identification, fingerprint, eye, or face scan. 

Q25. Explain Black hat, White hat, and Grey hat hackers. 

Ans.  Here’s the explanation:

  • Black hat: Black hat hackers are those people who have a good knowledge of breaching network security. They may work individually or may be backed by an organization to breach into the corporate or public networks to access, encrypt, or destroy data illegally.  
  • White hat: These are the security professionals specialized in penetration testing to identify the vulnerabilities in an organization. They hack into organizations legally and protect the information system of an organization. 
  • Grey hat hackers: They are the hackers who violate ethical standards without any malicious intent. They sometimes turn into black hat hackers based on their demand.  

You can also explore: White Hat vs Black Hat Hackers: What’s the Difference? 

You must explore: Types of Hackers to Be Aware of In 2023 

Scenario Based Cybersecurity Interview Questions: Basic Level 

Scenario 1: Receiving an email from an unknown sender 

Deepali is a freelance graphic designer who often works from home. She uses her personal computer to store her client’s files and design work. Recently, Deepali received an email from an unknown sender with an attachment that appeared to be a job offer. Without thinking much, Deepali clicked on the attachment and downloaded it. Little did she know that the attachment contained a virus that infected her computer and gave the attacker access to all her personal and client information. 

Questions Based on the Above Scenario: 

  • What is a virus, and how can it affect a computer’s security? 
  • What kind of information can attackers gain access to when they infect a computer with a virus? 
  • What steps can Deepali take to prevent her computer from being infected with a virus in the future? 
  • Why is it important to be cautious when opening email attachments from unknown senders? 
  • What are some common cybersecurity threats that people should be aware of to protect their personal and professional information? 

Q26. What is a virus, and how can it affect a computer’s security? 

Ans. A virus is a bad computer program that can harm a computer and take control of it. It can spread by attaching itself to other programs and files and steal personal information, delete files, and do other bad things. 

Q27. What kind of information can attackers gain access to when they infect a computer with a virus? 

Ans. If someone infects a computer with a virus, they can get access to a lot of personal and sensitive information stored on it. They can see things like passwords, bank information, and emails. 

Q28. What steps can Deepali take to prevent her computer from being infected with a virus in the future? 

Ans. To keep her computer safe, Deepali should install antivirus software, not open emails from unknown people, only download software from safe places, and save important files on an external device. 

Q29. Why is it important to be cautious when opening email attachments from unknown senders? 

Ans. It’s important to be careful when opening emails from people you don’t know because they might contain viruses that can harm your computer and take your personal information. 

Q30. What are some common cybersecurity threats that people should be aware of to protect their personal and professional information? 

Ans. There are many online threats like fake emails, viruses, and hackers that can steal personal information. People should take steps to protect their devices, use strong passwords and google safe browsing feature, and stay informed about online safety. 

Intermediate level Cybersecurity Interview Questions 

Q31. What is the main difference between cryptography and network security? 

Ans. The main difference between cryptography and network security is that cryptography is a way to hide information so that only the intended person can see it. Whereas, network security is all about protecting a network from bad things like hackers and viruses. 

For more information, you can also explore: Difference Between Cryptography and Network Security 

Q32. What is security misconfiguration? 

Ans. Categorized as system vulnerability, security misconfiguration is a situation when a device/application/network is misconfigured and is prone to exploited by an attacker. A few simple examples of this include leaving systems unattended in public places, sharing passwords of devices and accounts, etc. 

Q33. What is the main difference between SSL and SSH tunnel? 

Ans. The main difference between SSL and SSH tunnel is that an SSL tunnel uses a protocol called SSL/TLS to make data secret when it goes between a computer and a server. On the other hand, an SSH tunnel is created using SSH protocol that allows you to connect to remote machines over an insecure network securely. 

For more information, you can also explore: Difference Between SSL and SSH Tunnel 

Q34. How can you safeguard sensitive/confidential data? 

Ans. Data can be safeguarded by: 

  • Encryption  
  • Encoding  
  • Data Loss Prevention Software 
  • Email Encryption 
  • Two-Factor Authentication 
  • Virtual Private Networks 
  • Anti-malware protection 
  • Cryptographic hashing 
  • Data fingerprinting 
  • Monitor usage of physical devices 
  • Periodic Reviews of IT Infrastructure 
  • Regularly update cyber-security policies 
  • Overwrite deleted files 
  • Make old computer’s hard drive unreadable 
  • Keep software up-to-date 
  • Practice good password management 

Q35. What is Burp Suite? 

Ans. Burp Suite is a penetration testing tool, consisting of various tools, such as proxy, spider, scanner, etc., that are used for web application security testing. 

Q36. What is CIA Triangle? 

Ans. CIA triangle is a model for guiding information security policies in any organization. It stands for – 

  • Confidentiality – Maintaining the secrecy of the information 
  • Integrity – Keeping the information unchanged 
  • Availability – Ensuring an all-time availability of the information to the authorized 

Also Read: Top Security Courses For IT Professionals To Pursue 

Q37. What is an eavesdropping attack? 

Ans. An eavesdropping attack is a type of passive attack in which an attacker listens on other people’s conversations without their knowledge. This type of attack is also known as sniffing or snooping. 

For more information, you can also read: What Is Eavesdropping & How to Prevent It? 

Q38. What is a salami attack? 

Ans. A salami attack is a type of cybercrime where criminals use small attacks to steal money or resources from financial accounts. The attackers take a little bit of money at a time so that it is hard to notice. They keep doing this until they have stolen a lot of money. The name “salami” comes from the idea of slicing a small piece off a larger piece of meat, just like the attackers are slicing off small amounts of money or resources. The attackers use this technique to make a big attack without being noticed. 

For more information, you can also explore: What is a Salami Attack and How to protect against it? 

Q39. What is an XSS attack? 

Ans. Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is another type of vulnerability that can be technically described as a client-side code injection attack. In this particular attack, an attacker injects malicious data into vulnerable websites. An attack happens when a user visits the web page, as malicious code is then executed. This attack is very harmful to web application users. 

Q40. What are the different types of XSS attacks? 

Ans. There are three types of XSS attacks – 

  • Non-Persistent XSS attack – Here the data injected by the attacker is reflected in the response and has a link with the XSS vector 
  • Persistent XSS attack – The most harmful type of attack, where the script executes automatically the moment a user opens the page 
  • Document Object Model (DOM)-based XSS attack – An advanced type of XSS attack which happens when a web application writes data to the DOM without any sanitization 

Also Read: How to Get Free Cybersecurity Courses Online?  

Q41. Can you explain the ways to prevent an XSS attack? 

Ans. Yes, we can prevent XSS attacks through three ways – 

  • Escaping – It is the process of stripping out unwanted data to secure the output. 
  • Validating Input – This step ensures that the application is interpreting correct data while preventing any malicious data from entering. 
  • Sanitizing – This process involves cleaning or filtering your input data. It also changes unacceptable user input to an acceptable format. 

Q42. What is dumpster diving in cybersecurity? 

Ans. Dumpster Diving is a type of a passive attack in which a hacker searches trash in order to find useful information about an organization or a person that can be used for malicious activities, such as hacking. 

Q43. What is brute force attack? 

Ans. A brute force attack is a simple way to get into a website or server that is protected by a password. The attacker keeps trying different combinations of usernames and passwords until they find the right one that lets them in. 

For more information, you can also explore: What is a Brute Force Attack? 

Q44. Which methods are used in preventing a brute force login attack? 

Ans. The following methods are used in preventing a brute force login attack: 

  • Strong password policy and frequent password changes. 
  • Account lockout policy – account is locked after a set number of failed login attempts. It is locked until the administrator unlocks it. 
  • Use of Captcha – the user is asked to manually input some text or solve a simple problem. 
  • Progressive delays – account is locked for a certain period after three failed login attempts.  
  • Limit logins to a specified IP address or range – if you allow access only from a designated IP address or range, it will be difficult for brute force attackers to gain access. 
  • Two-factor authentication (2FA) – it reduces the risk of a potential data breach. 
  • Monitor your server logs – ensure that you analyze your log files diligently. 

Q45. Explain the difference between Symmetric and Asymmetric encryption. 

Ans. Here’s the difference between symmetric and asymmetric encryption:

  • Symmetric encryption – A conventional Encryption method, executed by one secret ‘Symmetric Key’ possessed by both parties. This key is used to encode and decode the information. Symmetric encryption is carried out using algorithms like AES, DES, 3DES, RC4, QUAD, Blowfish, etc. 
  • Asymmetric encryption – It is a complex mode of Encryption, executed using two cryptographic keys, namely a Public Key and a Private Key to implement data security. Asymmetric encryption is carried out using algorithms like Diffie-Hellman and RSA. 

Also Read: Top ITIL Interview Questions & Answers 

Q46. How would you handle antivirus alerts? 

Ans. To answer such kind of specific cybersecurity interview questions, you would need to use your exper tise and experience. A possible reply could be – On receiving an antivirus alert, one must refer to the antivirus policy and then analyze it. If the alert is sourced from a legitimate file, it should be directly whitelisted, but if it comes from a malicious source, it should be deleted. It is mandatory to keep updating the firewall to receive regular antivirus alerts. 

Q47. What is a Bot? 

Ans. A bot is a computer program that is designed to do certain jobs automatically without needing a person to start them every time. Bots follow their instructions and work on their own. 

For more information, you can also explore: What is a Bot and How Does it Work? 

Q48. What is SSL Encryption? 

Ans. It is the acronym for Secure Sockets Layer. It is an industry-standard security technology that creates encrypted connections between a web server and a browser. SSL is used to ensure data privacy. 

Q49. How will you recover data from a virus-infected system? 

Ans. We will install an OS and updated antivirus in a system that is free of any viruses, and then connect the hard drive of the infected system as a secondary drive. The hard drive will then be scanned and cleaned. Data can now be copied into the system. 

Q50. What is a traceroute? 

Ans. A traceroute or popularly known as tracert are diagnostic commands of a computer network and help the users spot any breakdown of communications. It shows the router’s path and helps the users determine the reasons in case of disconnection. 

Also Read: Most In-Demand Cybersecurity Skills To Learn  

Q51. What is a Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack? 

Ans. A denial-of-service (DoS) attack occurs when an attacker tries to overwhelm a machine or network with too much traffic, making it unable to work properly. This overwhelming traffic causes the machine or network to fail and stop working for its regular users. 

For more information, you can also explore: What is a Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack? 

Q52. What are DDoS attacks? 

Ans. DDoS stands for Distributed-Denial-of-Service. A DDoS attack is a cyber-attack in which the server is made unavailable by continuously flooding it with frequent data requests. Such attacks attempt to disrupt normal traffic of a targeted server, service, or network, preventing legitimate users from accessing the targeted website. DDoS attacks are often the result of multiple compromised systems, like a botnet, flooding the targeted system with traffic. 

For more information, you can also explore: What is a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack? 

Q53. What is the main difference between phishing and vishing? 

Ans. Phishing and vishing are two ways that bad people try to trick others into giving them information or money. Phishing happens mostly through email, while vishing happens through phone calls to a person’s mobile phone. 

For more information, you can also explore: Difference Between Phishing and Vishing 

Q54. Explain social engineering attacks. 

Ans. Social engineering refers to a variety of malicious activities used to manipulate and trick users into making security mistakes and giving away sensitive information. In social engineering, a hacker manipulates a target using normal communication mediums like calls, texts, and emails and fetches sensitive information without any technical expertise. Some of the examples of social engineering are phishing, whaling attack, spear phishing, water holing, baiting, quid pro quo, vishing, pretexting, and tailgating. 

For more information, you can also explore: What Is Social Engineering & How Does It Work? 

Q55. What is an OSI model? What are its different types? 

Ans. OSI stands for Open System Interconnection. It is a reference model that shows how information moves through a physical medium from a software application in one computer to the software application in another computer. In the OSI reference model, the communication between a computing system is split into seven different layers:  

  • Application layer 
  • Presentation layer 
  • Network layer 
  • Transport layer 
  • Session layer 
  • Data Link layer 
  • Physical layer 

For more information, you can also explore: OSI Model Explained: 7 Layers and Their Functions

Q56. What is Port Scanning? What are the different Port Scanning techniques? 

Ans. Port Scanning is the method of probing a server or a host for open ports that may be receiving or sending data. It sends packets to a specific port on a host and then examines responses to determine vulnerabilities. The different Port Scanning techniques are:  

  • Ping Scan 
  • TCP half-open 
  • UDP 
  • TCP Connect 
  • Stealth Scanning 

Q57. Explain the MITM attack. 

Ans. MITM stands for Man-in-the-Middle attack. It is a kind of attack where an attacker interrupts data transfer or communication between two persons (targets) to access confidential information. 

Q58. How to safeguard the IoT devices from cyberattacks? 

Ans. The following security capabilities can safeguard IoT devices against cyberattacks by making them more secure: 

  • Secure boot: use of cryptographic code signing techniques. 
  • Secure communication: it involves the use of security protocols like TLS, DTLS, and IPSec. 
  • Secure firmware update: it ensures that the device firmware is updated only with firmware from the device OEM or other trusted party. 
  • Data protection: encryption of all sensitive data stored on the IoT device. 
  • Authentication: it verifies the credentials of users that request access to the device. 

Scenario Based Cybersecurity Interview Questions: Intermediate Level 

Scenario 2: Making sure that the website is safe from hackers and cyber attacks. 

Rashmi runs an online store that sells handmade jewelry. She wants to make sure her website is safe from cyber attacks. She hires a cybersecurity expert named Mike to check for vulnerabilities and suggest security measures. During the assessment, Mike finds several risks, such as malware and the chance of a cross-site scripting (XSS) attack. He advises Rashmi to have security policies in place to prevent unauthorized access to her website’s database. Rashmi also asks Mike to explain the different encryption types and the most common hacker methods. 

Questions Based on the Above Scenario: 

  • What is symmetric encryption? How is it different from asymmetric encryption, and when should each type be used in cybersecurity? 
  • What are the risks associated with a cross-site scripting (XSS) attack, and how can Rashmi prevent these attacks from happening on her website? 
  • What are the most common types of malware, and what steps can Rashmi take to protect her website and customer data from these threats? 
  • How can Rashmi implement effective security policies for her small business website, and what should be included in these policies to prevent cyber attacks? 
  • What are some common methods used by hackers to gain unauthorized access to a website or network, and how can Rashmi prevent these attacks from happening on her website? 

Q59. What is symmetric encryption? How is it different from asymmetric encryption, and when should each type be used in cybersecurity? 

Ans. Symmetric encryption uses the same key for both encrypting and decrypting data, while asymmetric encryption uses two different keys. The symmetric encryption is faster and more efficient, but less secure than asymmetric encryption. Symmetric encryption is commonly used to encrypt large amounts of data, such as files and hard drives. In contrast, asymmetric encryption is commonly used for exchanging small amounts of data or for verifying data integrity. 

Q60. What are the risks associated with a cross-site scripting (XSS) attack, and how can Rashmi prevent these attacks from happening on her website? 

Ans. Cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks allow attackers to insert harmful code into a website that can be executed by users, leading to the theft of sensitive information. To prevent XSS attacks, Rashmi can use input validation to check user input for any malicious code and output encoding to sanitize any user-generated content. 

Q61. What are the most common types of malware, and what steps can Rashmi take to protect her website and customer data from these threats? 

Ans. Malware is software that is designed to cause harm or disrupt computer systems. Viruses, Trojan horses, and ransomware are the most common types of malware. To protect her website and customer data from malware, Rashmi can use antivirus software and keep her software and operating system up to date with the latest security patches. 

Q62. How can Rashmi implement effective security policies for her small business website, and what should be included in these policies to prevent cyber attacks? 

Ans. To create effective security policies for her small business website, Rashmi should first identify the information that needs protection and who has access to it. She can then establish clear guidelines for password creation and access to the website’s database. Rashmi can also use multi-factor authentication to add an extra layer of security. 

Q63. What are some common methods used by hackers to gain unauthorized access to a website or network, and how can Rashmi prevent these attacks from happening on her website? 

Ans. Hackers use various methods like brute-force attacks, SQL injection, phishing, etc., to gain unauthorized access to websites or networks. To prevent such attacks, Rashmi can use strong passwords, limit login attempts, use SSL encryption, and be careful with suspicious emails and links that could trick her or her customers into revealing sensitive information. 

Expert level Cybersecurity Interview Questions 

Q64. What is an RSA algorithm? 

Ans. The RSA algorithm is an asymmetric cryptography algorithm that is based on how difficult it is to factorize a large integer. The algorithm was developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman in 1978, hence the name RSA algorithm. The RSA algorithm works on two different keys: the Public Key and the Private Key. And, as the name implies, the Public Key is distributed to everyone while the Private Key is kept private. 

For more information, you can also explore: Do You Know: What Is an RSA Algorithm? 

Q65. What is zero-day attack? 

Ans. A zero-day attack is one of the destructive cyberattacks that exploits previously unknown software or hardware systems vulnerabilities. 

Q66. What are ITSCM and BCP? 

Ans. Here’s the explanation:

  • ITSCM – IT Service Continuity Management is a practice that allows information security professionals to develop IT infrastructure recovery plans 
  • BCP – Business Continuity Planning is the process by which a company creates a prevention and recovery system from potential threats. 

Q67. Why is information security policy necessary for organizations? 

Ans. Information security policy is necessary for organizations because it clearly outlines the responsibilities of employees about the safety and security of information, intellectual property, and data from potential risks. 

Q68. What are the most popular work-around recovery options? 

Ans. The most popular work-around recovery options are – 

  • Fast recovery 
  • Gradual recovery 
  • Immediate recovery 
  • Intermediate recovery 
  • Manual workaround 
  • Reciprocal arrangements 

Q69. What is ISO/IEC 27002? 

Ans. ISO/IEC 27002:2013 is an information security standard. It is devised by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This code of practice provides guidelines for organizational information security standards and information security management practices. 

Q70. What are the various response codes that can be received from a web application? 

Ans. Response codes received from a web application include – 

  • 1xx – Informational responses 
  • 2xx – Success 
  • 3xx – Redirection 
  • 4xx – Client-side error 
  • 5xx – Server-side error 

Q71. What is the difference between IDS and IPS? 

Ans. IDS or Intrusion Detection System detects only intrusions and the administrator has to take care of preventing the intrusion. Whereas, in IPS, i.e., Intrusion Prevention System, the system detects the intrusion and also takes actions to prevent the intrusion. 

Q72. Give some examples of web-based service desk tools. 

Ans. Some examples of web-based service desk tools include – 

  • BMC 
  • CA service desk 
  • Oracle Service Cloud 
  • ServiceNow 
  • SolarWinds Web Help Desk 
  • Spiceworks Help Desk/Cloud Help Desk 
  • Tivoli 

Q73. What are rainbow tables? 

Ans. Rainbow tables are the precomputed table to reverse cryptographic hash functions. These rainbow tables contain a significant number of inputs of hash functions and corresponding outputs. 

Q74. Explain Chain of Custody. 

Ans. Chain of custody refers to the process of gathering evidence, digitally and physically. It involves practices to ensure that the evidence has been legitimately gathered and not changed before admission into evidence. Following best practices when collecting digital evidence is important to protect the data from getting compromised as it is easy to erase or manipulate the information. It involves the following steps:  

  • Collection 
  • Examination 
  • Analysis 
  • Reporting 

Q75. Explain salted hashes. 

Ans. Usually, a password is protected by creating a hash value of that password in the system. In salted hashing, random data is added to the hash value. This helps in keeping the passwords safe and defending against attacks. 

Q76. What is a Botnet? 

Ans. A botnet refers to a group of Internet-connected devices infected by malware, like laptops, desktops, IoT that run one or more bots for various purposes like stealing sensitive information, crashing the targeted system, or spamming the targeted system. Some of the popular botnets are Conficker, Zeus, Waledac, and Kelihos. 

You can also explore: All You Need to Know About Botnet 

Q77. What is an SSH? 

Ans. The full form of SSH is Secure Socket Shell or Secure Shell. SSH is a utility suite that gives a secure way to system administrators to access the data on a network. 

Q78. What do you know about Cyber Espionage? 

Ans. Cyber espionage is the process of gaining unauthorized network or system access to obtain sensitive business documents. It uses malicious practices to access confidential/sensitive information of the company or government agency without the permission and knowledge of the holder. The objective of Cyber Espionage is to damage or misuse the compromised data. 

Q79. What are Meltdown and Spectre bugs? 

Ans. Meltdown and Spectre are processor bugs that exploit critical vulnerabilities in modern processors. They enable hackers to steal the currently processed data and store it in the cache on the computer. Meltdown and Spectre, thus access the data stored in the memory of other running programs. It may include the passwords stored in the browser, emails, instant messages, and confidential business documents. 

Explore Free Online Courses with Certificates 

Q80. How can you reset a password-protected BIOS configuration? 

Ans. Some of the ways to reset a password-protected BIOS configuration are: 

  • Using MS-DOS 
  • Removing CMOS battery 
  • Utilizing the software 
  • Using a motherboard jumper 

Scenario Based Cybersecurity Interview Questions: Expert Level 

Scenario 3: Resolving zero-day attack vulnerabilities. 

John is a cybersecurity expert working for a large healthcare organization. One day, John learns that there is a zero-day vulnerability in their database system that could potentially expose patients’ sensitive information. John quickly jumps into action and also conducts regular penetration testing to identify potential weaknesses in their systems. John faces the challenge of managing the increasing number of IoT devices on their network with limited processing power and memory.  

So, on the basis of above scenario answer the following questions: 

  • How would John protect against a zero-day vulnerability in a critical application like a web server or database system?  
  • Can you explain the steps in John’s penetration testing methodology, including techniques he would use?  
  • How can John effectively manage and secure the increasing number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices on their networks, especially given the limited processing power and memory of these devices? 

Q81: How would John protect against a zero-day vulnerability in a critical application like a web server or database system? 

Ans: John would first update all software and applications, then use network segmentation and access controls to limit exposure to potential attacks. He’d also use intrusion detection and prevention systems to monitor the network for any suspicious activity. 

Q82: Can you explain the steps in John’s penetration testing methodology, including techniques he would use? 

Ans: John’s penetration testing methodology includes these steps: gathering info on the target network and systems, identifying potential vulnerabilities, gathering more info about the systems and applications, exploiting vulnerabilities to gain access to the network, and maintaining access while avoiding detection. 

Q83: How can John effectively manage and secure the increasing number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices on their networks, especially given the limited processing power and memory of these devices? 

Ans. To effectively manage and secure the increasing number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices on their networks, John can take several steps, such as: 

  • Identify and categorize all IoT devices on the network 
  • Provide regular cybersecurity training to staff members 
  • Regularly monitor the network for any unusual activity or traffic 
  • Implement an inventory and patch management system to keep devices up-to-date 
  • Implement appropriate security measures such as network segmentation, access control, and encryption. 

Conclusion

In conclusion, being prepared for Cybersecurity Interview Questions is crucial for anyone seeking a career in the field. With the increasing importance of protecting sensitive information from cyber threats, employers are looking for candidates who possess the necessary skills and knowledge to secure their systems.

By familiarizing yourself with the top 80+ Cybersecurity Interview Questions, you can improve your chances of landing your dream job and demonstrating your expertise in the field. Make sure to stay up-to-date with the latest cybersecurity trends and technologies, and practice your communication skills to effectively convey your expertise during the interview process. Remember, the key to success in cybersecurity is staying vigilant and proactive, and this starts with acing those Cybersecurity Interview Questions.

FAQs

What does a cybersecurity professional do?

Cybersecurity professionals handle the task of securing the information and data of an organization efficiently. They protect an organization's files and network, install firewalls, create security plans, and monitor activity. They mitigate and prevent attacks by fixing potential vulnerabilities before they are exploited by malicious users.

What are the key skills for cybersecurity jobs?

The skills required for cybersecurity jobs are: Knowledge of security across different platforms; Understanding of hacking; Attention to detail; Communication skill; Problem-solving skills; Willingness to learn; Technical aptitude

How can I build cybersecurity skills?

You can build your cybersecurity skills by taking up an online course in cybersecurity. You will learn all the basic as well advanced concepts of cybersecurity, building and improving your cybersecurity skills and other related technical skills. You can also study it from other sources, read blogs, follow experts, and learn on the job to stay relevant in the industry.

What are the most in-demand cybersecurity skills to learn in 2022?

The most in-demand cybersecurity skills to learn in 2022 are: Ethical Hacking; Cloud Security; Blockchain Security; Computer Forensics; IoT Security; Artificial Intelligence; Programming Skills

Do I need programming skills for cybersecurity?

Knowledge of programming languages is not a requirement for all cybersecurity jobs. There are a variety of entry-level cybersecurity jobs that do not require programming knowledge. However, it may be an essential skill for some mid-level and upper-level cybersecurity jobs. While it is not necessary, knowledge of a programming language may help you to advance in your cybersecurity career.

What does a cybersecurity professional do?u00a0

Cybersecurity professionals handle the task of securing the information and data of an organization efficiently. They protect an organization's files and network, install firewalls, create security plans, and monitor activity. They mitigate and prevent attacks by fixing potential vulnerabilities before they are exploited by malicious users.

What are the key skills for cybersecurity jobs?u00a0

The skills required for cybersecurity jobs are: Knowledge of security across different platforms; Understanding of hacking; Attention to detail; Communication skill; Problem-solving skills; Willingness to learn; Technical aptitude.u00a0

How can I build cybersecurity skills?u00a0

Online courses in cybersecurity can help you build your cybersecurity skills. You will learn all the basic as well advanced concepts of cybersecurity, building and improving your cybersecurity skills and other related technical skills. You can also study it from other sources, read blogs, follow experts, and learn on the job to stay relevant in the industry.u00a0

What are the most in-demand cybersecurity skills to learn in 2023?u00a0

The most in-demand cybersecurity skills to learn in 2023 are: Ethical Hacking; Cloud Security; Blockchain Security; Computer Forensics; IoT Security; Artificial Intelligence; Programming Skillsu00a0

Do I need programming skills for cybersecurity?u00a0

Knowledge of programming languages is not a requirement for all cybersecurity jobs. There are a variety of entry-level cybersecurity jobs that do not require programming knowledge. However, it may be an essential skill for some mid-level and upper-level cybersecurity jobs. While it is not necessary, knowledge of a programming language may help you to advance in your cybersecurity career.u00a0

About the Author
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Anshuman Singh
Senior Executive - Content

Anshuman Singh is an accomplished content writer with over three years of experience specializing in cybersecurity, cloud computing, networking, and software testing. Known for his clear, concise, and informative wr... Read Full Bio