C is a procedural programming language, focusing on the sequence of actions to solve a problem. It’s about functions and structured programming. In contrast, C++ is an extension of C that incorporates object-oriented programming. This means, in C++, you can use classes and objects to group related functions and data together, making it easier to design and manage complex software systems. The primary difference lies in their approach: C is function-driven, while C++ is object-driven.
Table of Content
- Key Difference Between C and C++
- Similarities Between C and C++
- What is C Programming Language?
- Features of C Programming
- Applications of C Programming
- Disadvantages of C Programming
- What is C++ Programming Language?
- Features of C++
- Applications of C++
- Disadvantages of C++
Key Difference Between C and C++
- C++ supports classes, which are a type of object that can be used to group together data and methods. C does not support classes.
- C++ supports inheritance, which allows one class to inherit the properties of another class. C does not support inheritance.
- C++ supports polymorphism, which allows objects of different types to be treated similarly. C does not support polymorphism.
- C++ is a compiled language, while C is an interpreted language. This means that C++ code is converted into machine code before it is executed, while C code is interpreted line by line.
- C++ is a more complex language than C. This is because C++ has more features, such as classes, inheritance, and polymorphism.
Let’s understand this in detail.
|C was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories.||C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup of Bell Laboratories in the early 1980s.|
|It is a function-driven language.||It is an object-driven language.|
|C is a Procedural Oriented language. It does not support object-oriented programming (OOP) features such as polymorphism, encapsulation, and inheritance programming.||C++ is both a procedural and an object-oriented programming language. It supports OOP features such as polymorphism, encapsulation, and inheritance.|
|C is a subset of C++.||C++ is a superset of C.|
|C has 32 keywords.||C++ has 63 keywords.|
|Supports built-in data types||Supports both built-in and user-defined data types|
|The file extension of a program in C language is .c.||The file extension of a C++ program is .cpp.|
|Does not have access modifiers.||Has access modifiers.|
|C uses <stdio.h> header file for input/output operations.||C++ uses <iostream.h> header file for input/output operations.|
|No support for information hiding.||Data is secured and hidden by Encapsulation.|
|C focuses on the method or process rather than data.||C++ focuses on data rather than method or procedure.|
|No direct support for exception handling.||Supports exception handling.|
|C uses scanf() and printf() functions for input/output.||C++ uses cin and cout for input/output.|
|Does not support function and operator overloading.||Supports function and operator overloading.|
|The main() function can be called through other functions used in the code.||Does not allow the main() function to be called through other functions.|
|Does not support any reference variables.||Supports reference variables.|
Similarities Between C & C++
Some of the similarities in C and C++ programming languages are:
- Syntax: C++ is an extended version of C, therefore both have a similar syntax, compilation and code structure.
- Keywords: Most of C’s keywords and operators are used in C++ and perform the same function.
- Execution: C and C++ both follows top-down execution of the code.
- Comment: Inline Comment in both C and C++ is marked by //.
- Multi-Dimensional Array: Both C and C++ supports multi-dimensional array.
- Dynamic size Array: None of them support dynamic sized array.
- Statement Terminator: Both C and C++ uses semi-colon (;) for terminating a statement.
- Preprocessor Directive: #include is used in both C and C++ to include/import a header file.
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What is C Programming Language?
C programming is a structural or procedural-oriented programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. In fact, C programming language was originally developed to migrate the UNIX kernel code from assembly to a higher-level language that could do the same functions with fewer lines of code.
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C is considered a middle-level programming language because it has the features of low-level language as well as high-level Language. It is one of the foundational languages for beginners or new programmers as it forms the base for other programming languages.
Also Read – Understanding Operators in C++
Features of C Programming
Listed below are some of the key features of C programming –
- Procedural programming language: C is designed to be easy to read and understand. It follows a logical structure that makes it easy to write and debug code.
- Structured language: C has a clear and concise syntax and follows a logical structure. For example, C uses curly braces to define blocks of code and semicolons to mark the end of statements.
- Portable: C programs can be adapted to run on different platforms and hardware architectures. This makes it ideal for building software that needs to be run on a variety of different systems. For example, C programs can be compiled and run on Windows, Linux, and macOS.
- Low-level access: C gives programmers direct access to the hardware and operating system. This makes it ideal for writing code that needs to interact with the underlying system or perform tasks that require a high degree of control. For example, C can be used to write device drivers or system utilities that need to access the hardware directly.
- Efficient and fast: C is Well-suited for tasks that require a lot of processing power or that need to be completed quickly. This is because C is a compiled language, which means that it is converted into machine code before it is executed, making it faster than interpreted languages.
- ANSI standard: C has been formally standardized by a recognized industry organization. This ensures that C programs are consistent and portable across different systems. For example, ANSI C programs can be compiled and run on any system that supports the ANSI C standard.
- Large and active community of developers: There are many resources available for learning and using the language. For example, there are numerous online forums, tutorials, and documentation resources available for C programmers.
- Supports Dynamic Memory Allocation: C supports dynamic memory allocation, which means that you can allocate memory for variables and data structures at runtime. This makes it easier to manage memory usage in large programs.
- Supports pointers for direct memory interaction: C supports pointers, which are variables that store the memory addresses of other variables. Pointers can be used to directly interact with memory and can be useful for optimizing code and accessing low-level hardware.
Applications of C Programming
- Operating System like UNIX, Microsoft Windows, are created in C.
- Mac OS X kernel was originally written in C.
- Majority of Adobe software like Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Premier are built using C, C++.
- Build code compilers such as MinGW, Dev-C, Clang C.
- Web Browsers like Mozilla, and Chrome, is designed using C programming.
- Games like Tic-Tac-Toe, Snake, Half-Life, Starcraft in built using C programming. In 2004, a high graphics FPS game Doom 3 was built using C for Windows.
- Apple’s Xcode IDE is written in C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++.
- The assembly language code of UNIX operating system’s was rewritten in C in 1972.
- Oracle database rewrote their assembly codes to C in 1983.
- In 1985, when Windows 1.0 was released, its kernel was primarily written in C and assembly.
- Several embedded systems like alarm clock, microwave, tv, remote controlled devices, etc are mostly built using C, embedded C.
Disadvantages of C Programming
- Does not support Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) features such as Polymorphism, Inheritance, and Encapsulation.
- The bugs are not detected after each line of code, instead it is detected after writing the entire program. This makes debugging in C difficult for complex programs.
- C does not support the concept of namespace, due to which two variables cannot be declared with same name.
- C does not Exception Handling which in other languages are used to detect the bugs and generate appropriate responses.
- C language has low level of abstraction. Due to this C has minimum data hiding and this affects the overall security of the language.
Learn more: Basics of C Programming Language
What is C++ Programming Language?
C++ is a high-level computer programming language created in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup of Bell Laboratories. It is an extension of the traditional C language with added support for object-oriented programming and other capabilities.
C++ is close to low-level languages and is considered one of the fastest programming languages. It provides complete control over memory allocation and management. C++ is used to develop complex and high-performance applications. C++ is close to C# and Java, making it easier for programmers to switch to learning and working with these languages.
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Features of C++
- Object-oriented programming: C++ supports object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts such as inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation, which makes it easier to develop large, complex software systems.
- Templates: C++ supports templates, which are reusable code blocks that can be used to create generic functions and data types.
- Exception handling: C++ has built-in support for exception handling, which allows you to catch and handle errors and exceptions that occur during program execution.
- Function overloading: C++ allows you to create multiple functions with the same name but with different parameters, a technique known as function overloading.
- Operator overloading: C++ allows you to overload operators, which means that you can define how operators behave when used with different data types.
- Namespaces: C++ supports namespaces, which are used to organize code and prevent name collisions.
- Standard Template Library (STL): C++ includes the Standard Template Library (STL), which is a collection of templates and algorithms that can be used to implement common data structures and algorithms.
- Compatibility with C: C++ is fully compatible with C, which means that you can use C libraries and code in your C++ programs. This makes it easy to incorporate existing C code into C++ projects.
Also Explore: C++ Online Courses & Certifications
Applications of C++
- Google used C++ to create several products like Google Earth, the Google Chrome browser.
- Spotify one of the most popular audio streaming app has its back-end written in C++.
- Operating Systems like Windows, Mac, Linux are built using C++.
- Mozilla Firefox used a subset of C++ (C++14) to build Mozilla 59.
- Microsoft products such as Word, Excel, and PowerPoint are written in both C and C++.
- One of the most powerful database MySQL is written in both C and C++.
- At Microsoft code written for the – DirectX, Windows API, and .NET are all based on C++.
- Very popular games like Witcher 3, Counter-Strike, Doom III Engine, World of Warcraft, King Quest, Football Pro and Invictus are all written in C++ .
- A popular media player Winamp is developed using C++.
- MongoDB a popular open-source NoSQL database is written using C++.
- Unreal Engine for most graphic-intensive 2D, 3D, VR, AR, cross-platform, single-player, or multiplayer games primarily uses C++.
Disadvantages of C++
- For a beginner, C++ might be a relatively difficult language to learn and start with.
- Manual memory management in C++ is a hassle, as there is no garbage collection to automatically remove unwanted data.
- If you’re used to automated memory management, managing memory allocation manually can be a challenge.
- Not very secure because of pointers, global variables, etc.
- C++ does not support built-in code threads due to which the process makes slower and complicated.
- The pointers in C++ take up more than required memory which might not be suitable for some devices.
Latest Update from C and C++
The C programming language, despite its age, continues to be a staple in the world of programming. According to the TIOBE Index for May 2023, C has maintained its position as the second most popular programming language, with a rating of 13.905%. This is a slight decrease from its rating of 14.3% in 2022, indicating a slight dip in popularity. However, it’s important to note that C’s usage and popularity are still significant, especially in systems programming and embedded systems.
In recent news, the C language has seen some important updates. The C23 standard, which was released earlier this year, has brought several improvements and features to the language. These include enhanced support for parallel computing and improved error handling, which are expected to make the language more robust and efficient.
In conclusion, C and C++ are two very different programming languages that have their own unique features and characteristics. The main difference between C and C++ is that C is function-driven procedural language with no support for objects and classes, whereas C++ is a combination of procedural and object-oriented programming languages. Ultimately, the choice between C and C++ depends on the specific needs and goals of your project, and it is important to carefully consider the trade-offs between the two languages before making a decision. We hope this blog helped you understand the features, applications, disadvantages, and differences between C and C++ to decide which language is more suitable for your projects.
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What is the difference between C and C++?
The main difference between C and C++ is that C is a procedural programming language that does not support classes and objects. On the other hand, C++ is an extension of C programming with object-oriented programming (OOP) support.
Which programming language to learn first C or C++?
C is a good option for those who want to learn systems-level programming. After gaining familiarity with procedural programming in the C language, you can move on to learning C++. If you are already familiar with OOP concepts or have some knowledge of Java, it will be better to learn C++ first.
Is C still used in 2023?
C is one of the oldest programming languages and is still used by many developers and companies today. It is majorly used for low-level developments such as operating systems and hardware.
Where are C and C++ used?
C is used in the areas where low-level programming languages are required. C programming is used in operating systems, embedded devices, OS kernels, drivers, IoT applications, and more. C++ is widely used for creating graphics-heavy software, game engines, VR applications, and web browsers.
Should I learn Python or C?
In terms of syntax, Python is easier to learn as it has more English-like syntax and a few keywords compared to C programming. Python programs are easy to understand, read, and write. In terms of performance or speed, C programming is more suitable as Python is slower than C.
Can C code be used in C++?
Yes, C code can be used in C++. C++ is designed to be backward-compatible with C, so you can use most C code in a C++ program. However, there are some differences in syntax and semantics, so you may need to make some changes to the code in order to use it in a C++ program.
Can I learn C++ without C? Is C++ hard to learn?
Yes, we can easily learn C++ without understanding C. C is a subset of C++, even if you skip learning C, you will anyways come across the C language while learning C++.
Which is faster C or C++?
Actually, this is dependent on the feature. For example, if we used object-oriented programming features like virtual functions in our C++ program, this program is sure to be slower since there are always extra efforts necessary to maintain virtual tables and other virtual function details. However, if we use standard C++ capabilities, this C++ program and any other C program will run at the same pace. As a result, it is dependent on elements such as the application we are producing, the features we are using, and so on.
What are the advantages of C over C++?
C is a simpler language than C++, which makes it faster and more efficient. C also has a smaller runtime library and produces smaller executables. In addition, C code is more portable than C++ code, since it is less likely to depend on specific features of a particular compiler or operating system.
What are the advantages of C++ over C?
C++ includes features for object-oriented programming that are not available in C, which makes it more flexible and powerful for certain types of applications. C++ also includes features for exception handling, templates, and namespaces, which can make code more modular and easier to maintain.
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