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NUCAT 2023 Syllabus: Physics
SYLLABUS: I PUC PHYSICS
UNITI
Chapter 1: PHYSICAL WORLD
Physics: Scope and excitement of physics, Physicstechnology and society
Mention of fundamental forces in nature  Nature of physical laws.
Chapter 2: UNIT OF MEASUREMENT
Unit of measurement  System of units  SI units  Fundamental and derived units  Length, mass and time
measurements  Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments.
Errors in measurement; Significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities  Dimensional analysis and its applications: (a) Checking of dimensional consistency
of equations and (b) Deducing relation among physical quantities.
UNITII
Chapter 3: MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
Position and frame of reference  Definitions of path length and displacement  Definitions of average speed and
average velocity, instantaneous speed and instantaneous velocity and uniform and nonuniform motion.
Uniformly accelerated motion. Positiontime graph,
Velocitytime graph: To show that area under the velocity time curve is equal to displacement.
Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion.
Derivation of v = v
_{o} + at , x = v
_{o} + 1⁄2 at
^{2 }and v
^{2} = v
_{o}
^{2} + 2ax using vt graph  Relative velocity.
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
Chapter 4: MOTION IN A PLANE
Scalars and vectors, Position and displacement vectors, Equality of vectors, Multiplication of a vector by real number.
Addition and subtraction of two vectors: Triangle method and parallelogram method. Unit vector, Resolution of a vector,
Rectangular components. Resultant of two concurrent vectors.
Scalar and vector product of two vectors with examples.
Motion in a plane with constant acceleration.
Projectile motion: Derivations of equation of path, time of flight, maximum height and horizontal range, of a
projectile. Uniform circular motion: Derivation of centripetal acceleration.
UNITIII
Chapter 5: LAWS OF MOTION
Aristotle’s fallacy, Newton’s first law of motion, Concept of inertia and force.
Concept of momentum  Newton’s second law of motion: Derivation of F= ma and definition of SI unit of force.
Impulse, impulsive force and examples  Newton’s third law of motion, Identification of action and reaction pairs
with examples in everyday life.
Law of conservation of linear momentum: Statement and proof in the case of collision of two bodies.
Condition for the equilibrium of a particle under the action of concurrent forces.
Friction: Static and kinetic friction  Laws of friction  Rolling friction  Methods of reducing of friction.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Derivation of maximum speed of a car moving on banked circular road and
discuss in the case of level circular road by taking θ = 0.
UNITIV
Chapter 6: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
WORK: Definition of Work: W = F. d and discussion of various cases  Work done by a constant force and by a
variable force. Kinetic energy  Workenergy theorem: Statement and proof in the case of rectilinear motion under
constant acceleration. Concept of potential energy  Principle of conservation of mechanical energy: Statement and
illustration in the case of freely falling body. Conservative and nonconservative forces with examples.
Potential energy of a spring  Mention of expression V(x) = kx
^{2}/2.
POWER: Definition and derivation of power P = F.v
COLLISIONS: Elastic and inelastic collisions  Collisions in one dimension: Derivation of loss of kinetic energy in
completely inelastic collisions  Derivation of final velocity of masses undergoing elastic collision. Collisions in two
dimensions.
UNITV
Chapter 7: SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION
Definitions of a rigid body, translatory motion and rotatory motion  Centre of mass of a twoparticle system.
Mention of expression for position coordinates of centre of mass of (a) nparticle system (b) a rigid body and (c) a
uniform thin rod. Definition of angular velocity and mention of the relation v = rw.Definitions of angular acceleration
and moment of a forcetorque  Angular momentum (l) of a particle: Derivation of dl/dt = τ.
Equilibrium of rigid body: Mention of conditions for mechanical equilibrium of a rigid body.
Definitions of the moment of inertia and radius of gyration.
Theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes: Statement and explanation.
Mention of expressions for a moment of inertia of simple geometrical objects.
Kinematics of rotational motion about a fixed axis: Mention of the equation of rotational motion.
Comparison of linear and rotational motion.
Principle of conservation of angular momentum: Statement and illustrations.
UNITVI
Chapter 8: GRAVITATION
Kepler’s laws (three laws) of planetary motion: Statement and explanation.
Universal law of gravitation: Statement and explanation.
Acceleration due to gravity of earth: Derivation of relation between g and G.
Variation of acceleration due to gravity with altitude (height) and depth: Derivation of acceleration due gravity at a
point (a) above and (b) below the surface of earth.
Gravitational potential energy: Derivation of gravitational potential energy.
Escape speed: Definition and derivation of expression for escape speed from the principle of conservation of energy.
Earth satellites: Derivation of orbital speed of earth satellite  Geostationary and polar satellites.
UNITVII
Chapter 9: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
Elasticity and plasticity  Elastic behavior of solids  Stress and strain  Hooke’s law: Stress–strain curve.
Elastic moduli; Definitions and expressions of Young’s modulus, Bulk modulus and Shear modulus of rigidity.
Poisson’s ratio  Elastic energy.
Chapter 10: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
Pressure: Definition  Derivation of pressure at a point inside a liquid  Gauge pressure.
Pascal’s law: Statement and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes).
Streamline flow: Equation of continuity  Turbulent flow  Critical speed.
Bernoulli’s principle; Statement  Explanation of Bernoulli’s equation  Illustration of Bernoulli’s principle in the case
of (a) blood flow and heart attack (b) dynamic lift of a ball and aerofoil.
Viscosity: Definition and mention of expression for coefficient of viscosity. Stoke’s law.
Reynolds’s number: Mention of expression  Classification of nature of flow on the basis of Reynolds’s number.
Surface tension: Surface energy and surface tension  Angle of contact  Applications of surface tension ideas to
drops, bubbles, capillary rise and action of detergents.
Chapter 11: THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Temperature and heat, Thermal expansion of solids: linear, area and volume expansion of solids – Thermal expansion of
liquids: Anomalous expansion of water, Thermal expansion of gases: Derivation of αV = 1/T for ideal gas.
Specific heat capacity: Definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity  Molar specific heat capacity at constant
pressure and Molar specific heat capacity at constant volume.
Principle of calorimetry  Change of state ; melting, fusion, melting point, regelation, boiling point, sublimation point
 Latent heat ; Latent heat of fusion and vapourisation.
Heat transfer: Conduction and thermal conductivity, Convection: Sea breeze and land breeze, Radiation: Newton’s
law of cooling. Stefan’s law  Qualitative ideas of black body radiation.
Wien’s displacement law  Greenhouse effect.
UNITVIII
Chapter 12: THERMODYNAMICS
Thermal equilibrium  Zeroth law of Thermodynamics: Statement and explanation.
Heat, internal energy and work  First law of thermodynamics: Statement and explanation,
Isothermal process: Derivation of workdone in isothermal process.
Adiabatic process: Mention of the expression PVγ = constant, for adiabatic process.
Heat engines: Schematic representation and efficiency.
Refrigerators (Heat pumps): Schematic diagram and coefficient of performance.
Second law of thermodynamics: KelvinPlanck statement and Clausius statement.
Reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot’s engine; Carnot cycle and efficiency.
UNITIX
Chapter 13: KINETIC THEORY
Equation of state of a perfect gas  Kinetic theory of an ideal gas: Derivation of P =(1/3)mnv̅
^{2}
Kinetic interpretation of temperature ; Mention of expression for average kinetic energy of a molecule in terms of
absolute temperature  Definition of rms speed of gas molecules.
Degrees of freedom  Law of equipartition of energy: Statement and application to specific heat capacities of
monatomic, diatomic and polyatomic gases  Concept of mean free path.
UNITX
Chapter 14: OSCILLATIONS
Periodic & oscillatory motion: Definitions of Period & Frequency, Displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION: Definition, equation, graphical representation of displacement with time, Phase.
Mention of expressions for velocity and acceleration  Force law for simple harmonic motion : F(t) = −kx(t).
Energy in simple harmonic motion: Derivations of kinetic energy, potential energy and total energy.
Oscillations due to a spring  Restoring force & force constant  Mention of expression for time period.
Simple pendulum: Derivation of expression for time period  Qualitative ideas of damped, forced and free
oscillations  Resonance.
Chapter 15: WAVES
Wave motion: Longitudinal and transverse waves, Mention of displacement relation in a progressive wave
Amplitude and phase  Wavelength and angular wave number  Period, frequency and angular frequency.
Speed of traveling wave: Mention of expression for velocity of wave: v = λv.
Mention of expression for speed of transverse wave on a stretched string v = √T/μ
Speed of a longitudinal wave(sound) ; Newton’s formula and Laplace’s correction.
Qualitative explanation of principle of superposition of waves. Reflection of waves at rigid and open boundary.
Standing waves and normal modes: Theory, extension to stretched string and air columns  Fundamental mode and
harmonics  Theory of beats. Doppler Effect: Explanation of the phenomenon.
Derivation of apparent frequency in the case of (a) moving source and stationary observer, (b) moving observer and
stationary source and (c) both source and observer moving.

SYLLABUS: II PUC PHYSICS UNITI
UNITII
Chapter 2: ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE
Electric Potential: Definition of electric potential at a point  Definition of potential difference,
Derivation of electric potential due to a point charge, Mention of expression for electric potential due a short
electric dipole at any point, Comparison of the variation of electric potential with distance between a point
charge and an electric dipole, Application of superposition principle to find electric potential due to a
system of charges.
Equipotential surfaces: Properties, Derivation of the relation between electric field and potential.
Electric potential energy: Definition of electric potential energy of a system of charges.
Derivation of electric potential energy of a system of two point charges in the absence of external electric
field, Mention of expression for electric potential energy of a system of two point charges in an external electric field.
Mention of expression for the electric potential energy of an electric dipole placed in a uniform electric field.
Electrostatics of conductors: Dielectrics and electric polarization.
Polar and nonpolar dielectrics and their behaviour in the absence and presence of external electric field.
Capacitors and capacitance:
Parallel plate capacitor  Derivation of the capacitance of a capacitor without dielectric medium,
Mention of expression for capacitance of a capacitor with dielectric medium  Definition of dielectric
constant.
Combination of capacitors:
Derivation of effective capacitance of two capacitors (a) in series combination and (b) in parallel
combination.
Derivation of energy stored in a capacitor.
UNITIII
Chapter 3: CURRENT ELECTRICITY
Definition of electric current, Electric currents in a conductor  Definition of current density.
Ohm’s law: Statement and explanation, Limitations of Ohm’s law.
Dependence of electrical resistance on the dimensions of conductor and mention of R= ρl/A,
Electrical resistivity and conductivity  Derivation of the relation
j =σE (equivalent form of Ohm’s law).
Drift of electrons and origin of resistivity; Definitions of drift velocity, relaxation time and mobility.
Derivation of expression for conductivity of a material : σ = ne
^{2}τ/m.
Colour code of carbon resistors  Temperature dependence of resistivity of metals and semiconductors.
Electrical energy and power:Mention of expression for power loss.
COMBINATION OF RESISTORS: Derivation of effective resistance of two resistors (a) in series
combination and (b) in parallel combination.
CELLS: Definitions of internal resistance of a cell, terminal potential difference and emf of a cell.
Derivation of current drawn by external resistance [I=ε/(R+r)].
Combination of cells: Derivation of expressions for equivalent emf and equivalent internal resistance
(a) in series and (b) in parallel combination.
Kirchhoff’s rules: Statements and explanation.
Wheatstone bridge: Derivation of balancing condition  Metre Bridge.
Potentiometer: Principle  Mention of applications of Potentiometer:
(a) to compare emf’s of two cells and (b) to measure internal resistance of a cell.
UNITIV
UNITV
Chapter 6: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
Experiments of Faraday and Henry, Magnetic flux: Φ = B. A; Statement and explanation of Faraday’s law of
electromagnetic induction, Lenz’s law: Statement, explanation and its significance as conservation of
energy.
Motional emf: Derivation of expression for motional emf: ε = Blv,
Eddy currents  Advantages of eddy currents with common practical applications.
Inductance: Mutual inductance: Mention of expression for mutual inductance of two coaxial solenoids,
Mention of expression for induced emf: ε = −M (dI/dt).
Selfinductance: Mention of expression for selfinductance of the solenoid,
Mention of expression for induced emf: ε = −M (dI/dt)
Derivation of energy stored in the coil.
AC generator: Labelled diagram
Derivation of instantaneous emf in an ac generator ε= NBAω(sinωt) = ε
_{0}(sinωt).
UNITVI
Chapter 7: ALTERNATING CURRENT
Mention of expression for instantaneous, peak and rms values of alternating current and voltage.
AC voltage applied to a resistor: Derivation of expression for current, mention of phase relation between
voltage and current and phasor representation.
AC voltage applied to an inductor: Derivation of expression for current, mention of phase relation between
voltage and current, phasor representation and mention of expression for inductive reactance.
AC voltage applied to a capacitor: Derivation of expression for current, mention of phase relation between
voltage and current, phasor representation and mention of expression for capacitive reactance.
AC voltage applied to series LCR circuit: Derivation of expression for impendence, current and phase angle
using phasor diagram only Electrical resonance  Derivation of expression for resonant frequency(0)
Mention of expressions for bandwidth and sharpness (quality factor).
Mention of expression for power in an ac circuit  Power factor and qualitative discussion in the case of
resistive, inductive and capacitive circuit  Meaning of wattless current.
LC oscillations: Qualitative explanation, Mention of expressionfor frequency of LC oscillations and
Mention of expression for total energy of LC circuit.
Transformer: Principle, construction and working  Mention of expression for turns ratio  Sources of energy
losses.
Chapter 8: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Displacement current  Mention the need for displacement current (inconsistency of Ampere’s circuital law)
Mention of expression for displacement current  Mention of expression for AmpereMaxwell law.
Electromagnetic waves: Sources and nature of electromagnetic waves and their characteristics.
Mention of expression of speed of light (in vacuum and in medium in terms of permeability and
permittivity).
Electromagnetic spectrum: Wavelength range of various regions (parts or components) and their uses.
UNITVII
Mention of applications total internal reflection (mirage, total reflecting prisms and optical fibers).
Refraction at spherical surfaces: Derivation of the relation between u, v, n and R.
Refraction by a lens: Derivation of lensmaker’s formula – Mention of thin lens formula.
Definition and expression for linear magnification.
Power of a lens and mention of expression for it (P = 1/f).
Combination of thin lenses in contact: Derivation of equivalent focal length of two thin lenses in contact.
Refraction of light through a prism: Derivation of refractive index of the material of the prism.
Scattering of light: Rayleigh’s scattering law (I ∝1/λ)
4): Blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS:
MICROSCOPE: Simple microscope, Ray diagram for image formation, Mention of expression for the magnifying power.
Compound microscope: Ray diagram for image formation  Mention of expressions for the magnifying
power when the final image is at (a) least distance of distinct vision and (b) infinity.
TELESCOPE: Ray diagram for image formation, Mentionof expression for the magnifying power and
length of the telescope (tube length) L = f
_{o} + f
_{e}, Schematic ray diagram of reflecting telescope.
UNITVIII
Chapter 10: WAVE OPTICS
Wavefront (plane, spherical and cylindrical)  Huygens’ principle.
Refraction of plane wave at a plane surface (rarer to denser): Derivation of Snell’s law.
Reflection of a plane wave by a plane surface: Derivation of the law of reflection.
Explanation of refraction of plane wave through a thin prism and convex lens through diagrams,
Reflection of plane wave by a concave mirror through diagram.
INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT:
Coherent sources  Theory of interference (with equal amplitude – arriving at the conditions for constructive
and destructive interference) Young’s experiment: Brief description –Derivation of expression for fringe
width.
DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT: Explanation of the phenomenon  Diffraction due to a single slit  Mention of
the conditions for diffraction minima and maxima  Intensity distribution curve  Resolving power of an
optical instruments, Mention of expressions for limit of resolution of (a) microscope and (b) telescope.
Methods of increasing the resolving power of microscope and telescope.
POLARISATION: Explanation of the phenomenon  Plane polarised light  Polaroids and its uses  Pass axis.
Malu’s law, Polarisation by reflection,
Brewster’s angle  Arriving at Brewster’s law  Statement of Brewster’s law.
UNITIX
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Electron emission: Definition of electron volt (eV) and work function  Types of electron emission. Photoelectric effect: Mention of Hertz’s observations  Mention of Hallwachs’ and Lenard’s observations. Definition of threshold frequency  Explanation of the phenomenon of the Photoelectric effect, Experimental setup to study Photoelectric effect  observations. Mention of effect of (a) intensity of light on photocurrent, (b) potential on photocurrent and (c) frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential  Definition of stopping potential. Einstein’s photoelectric equation: Explanation of experimental results. Particle nature of light: Characteristics of photon. Wave nature of matter: deBroglie hypothesis  Mention of deBroglie relation. Mention of expression for deBroglie wavelength in terms of (a) kinetic energy and (b) acceleration potential. Davisson and Germer experiment: (No experimental details) Brief explanation of conclusion  wave nature
of electrons on the basis of electron diffraction.
Chapter 12: ATOMS
Alpha particle scattering: Schematic diagram of GeigerMarsden experiment, observations and conclusion.
Rutherford’s model of an atom Derivation of total energy of electron in hydrogen atom in terms of orbit radius.
Atomic spectra: Spectral series of hydrogen, Mention of empirical formulae for wave number (1/λ) of
different series. Bohr model of hydrogen atom: Bohr’s postulates  Derivation of Bohr radius  Derivation
of energy of electron in stationary states of hydrogen atom  Line spectra of hydrogen atom, Derivation of
frequency of emitted radiation  Mention of expression for Rydberg constant  Energy level diagram  de
Broglie’s explanation of Bohr’s second postulate  Limitations of Bohr model.
UNITX
Chapter 13: NUCLEI
Definition of atomic mass unit(u) Isotopes, isobars and isotones – Composition, size, mass and density of the nucleus,
Einstein’s massenergy relation  Nuclear binding energy; Brief explanation of mass defect and binding
energy  Binding energy per nucleon  Binding energy curve  Nuclear force and its characteristics.
Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion with examples.
Radioactivity: Law of radioactive decay  Derivation of N = N
_{o}e
^{−λt},
Activity (decay rate) and its units: becquerel and curie.
Definition and derivation of halflife of radioactive element  Definition of mean life and mention its
expression.
Alpha decay, beta decay (negative and positive) and gamma decay with examples  Q value of nuclear
reaction.
Chapter 14: SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS
Energy bands in solids: Valance band, conduction band and energy gap.
Classification of solids on the basis of energy bands.
Semiconductors: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors (p type and n type), pn junction, pn junction
formation.
Semiconductor diode: Forward and reverse bias: IV characteristics,
Definitions of cutinvoltage, breakdown voltage and reverse saturation current.
Diode as a rectifier: Circuit diagram, working, input and output waveforms for (a) halfwave and (b) fullwave rectifiers.
Zener diode: IV characteristics  Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Optoelectronic junction devices:
Working principles and mention of applications of photodiode, LED and solar cell.
Logic gates: Logic symbol and truth table of NOT, OR, AND, NAND and NOR gates.

SYLLABUS: I PUC CHEMISTRY
UNITI
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of Chemistry.
Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and
molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and
molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
UNITII
Structure of Atom
Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson's model and its
limitations. Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and
subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals 
Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of
halffilled and completely filled orbitals.
UNITIII
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and
the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii, ionic radii, inert
gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements
with atomic number greater than 100.
UNITIV
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of
covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent
molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some
simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules(qualitative idea only),
Hydrogen bond.
UNITV
States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas
laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's
law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation.
Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular
speeds (elementary idea), Liquid State vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea
only, no mathematical derivations)
UNITVI
Chemical Thermodynamics
Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement
of ΔU and ΔH, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion,
formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of
Thermodynamics (brief introduction)
Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's energy change for spontaneous and nonspontaneous
processes, and criteria for equilibrium.
Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).
UNITVII
Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action,
equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium  Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium ionization
of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid
strength, concept of pH, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, Henderson Equation,
solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
UNITVIII
Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms
of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.
UNITIX
Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen,
hydridesionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen
peroxide preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.
UNITX
sBlock Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals) Group 1 and Group 2 Elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses. Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds: Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogen carbonate, Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium. Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.
UNITXI
Some pBlock Elements
General Introduction to p Block Elements
Group 13 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties,
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron 
physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides,
Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.
Group 14 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties,
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements. Carboncatenation,
allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important
compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.
UNITXII
Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and
IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive
effect, electrometric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a
covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic
reactions.
UNITXIII
Hydrocarbons
Classification of Hydrocarbons
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:
Alkanes  Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions
including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes  Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties,
methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides
(Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilicaddition.
Alkynes  Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation,
chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of  hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen
halides and water.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons:
Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of
electrophilic substitution. Nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation,
directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
UNITXIV
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution  air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major
atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse
effect and global warming pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for
reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution.

SYLLABUS: II PUC Chemistry
UNITI
Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids,
amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional
lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms
per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
UNITII
Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in
liquids, solid solutions, Raoult's law, colligative properties  relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation
of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using
colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hofffactor.
UNITIII
Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical
cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions,
specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law,
electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cellelectrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead
accumulator, fuel cells,corrosion.
UNITIV
Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration,
temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated
rate equations and halflife (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary
idea, no mathematical treatment), activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
UNITV
Surface Chemistry
Adsorption  physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis:
homogenous and heterogenous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts; enzyme catalysis, colloidal state:
distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and
macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis,
coagulation, emulsion  types of emulsions.
UNITVI
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction  concentration, oxidation, reduction  electrolytic method and
refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
UNITVII
pBlock Elements
Group 15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends
in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen:
preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only); Phosphorus 
allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and properties of Phosphine, Halides and
Oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in
physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides,
Ozone, Sulphur allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur
dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur
(Structures only).
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in
physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and
Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and
chemical properties uses.
UNITVIII
d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general
trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation
states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation,
preparation and properties of K
_{2}Cr
_{2}O
_{7} and KMnO
_{4}.
Lanthanoids  Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction
and its consequences.
Actinoids  Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
UNITIX
Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds  Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and
shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT,
and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,
extraction of metals and biological system).
UNITX
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation
mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in
monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and environmental effects of  dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform,
freons, DDT.
UNITXI
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols
only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with
special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol,
electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
UNITXII
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties;
uses.
UNITXIII
Amines
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties,
uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
UNITXIV
Biomolecules
Carbohydrates  Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), DL
configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen);
Importance of carbohydrates.
Proteins Elementary idea of  amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins 
primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of
proteins; enzymes. Hormones  Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins  Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
UNITXV
Polymers
Classification  natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization, and some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters,
bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers.
UNITXVI
Chemistry in Everyday life
Chemicals in medicines  analgesics, tranquillizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility
drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihist amines.
Chemicals in food  preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

SYLLABUS: I PUC Mathematics
UNITI
SETS AND FUNCTIONS
1. Sets
Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite and Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. Subsets of
the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn
diagrams. Union and intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set, Properties of
Complement sets.
2. Relations and Functions
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the Cartesian product of two
finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R × R × R).
Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, codomain and range of a
relation.
Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial
representation of a function, domain, codomain and range of a function. Real
valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions,
constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer
functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of
functions
3. Trigonometric Functions
Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion from
one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth
of the identity sin2x + cos2x = 1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their
graphs. Expressing sin(x + y) and cos(x + y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx and cosy.
Identities related to sin2x, cos2x, tan2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of
trigonometric equations of the type sinθ = sinα, cosθ = cosα and tanθ = tanα. Proofs and simple applications of sine and cosine formulae.
UNITII
ALGEBRA
1. Principle of Mathematical Induction
Process of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural
numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction
and simple applications.
2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
Need for complex numbers, especially √−1 , to be motivated by inability to solve every
quadratic equation. Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane
and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra,
solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system, Squareroot of a Complex
number.
3. Linear Inequalities
Linear inequalities, Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables  graphically. 4. Permutations and Combinations Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. Permutations and combinations derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications. 5. Binomial Theorem History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, general and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications. 6. Sequence and Series Sequence and Series. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.), Arithmetic Mean (A.M.), Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P. Arithmetic and geometric series, infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric mean (G.M.). Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to n terms of the special series : ∑n , ∑ n ^{2} and ∑ n ^{3}.
UNITIII
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1.Straight Lines
Brief recall of 2D from earlier classes, shifting of origin. Slope of a line and angle between two
lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, pointslope form, slopeintercept
form, twopoint form, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Equation of
family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Distance of a point from a
line.
2. Conic Sections
Sections of a cone: Circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of
intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple
properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.
3. Introduction to Threedimensional Geometry
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance
between two points and section formula.
UNITIV
CALCULUS
1. Limits and Derivatives
Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically,
The intuitive idea of limit. lim
_{x→0} loge(1+x)/x, lim
_{x→0}e
^{x−1}/x. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of
the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of
polynomial and trigonometric functions.
UNITV
MATHEMATICAL REASONING
Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/phrases  consolidating
the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”,
“and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through a variety of
examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving
the connecting words  the difference between contradiction, converse and
contrapositive.
UNITVI
STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
1.Statistics
Measure of dispersion; mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped
data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.
2. Probability
Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events: Occurrence of
events, ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events. Axiomatic (set
theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event,
probability of ‘not’, ‘and’, & ‘or’ events.

SYLLABUS: II PUC Mathematics
UNITI
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
1. Relations and Functions
Types of relations: Reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto
functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.
2. Inverse Trigonometric Function
Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions.
Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
UNITII
ALGEBRA
1. Matrices
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix,
symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of
matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non
commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of nonzero matrices whose product is
the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column
operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all
matrices will have real entries).
2. Determinants
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 × 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
UNITIII
CALCULUS
1. Continuity and Differentiability
Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of
inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concepts of exponential,
logarithmic functions. Derivatives of loge
^{x} and e
^{x}. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of
functions expressed in parametric forms. Secondorder derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean
Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.
2. Applications of Derivatives
Applications of derivatives: Rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as reallife situations).
3. Integrals
Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by
substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of the type –
∫dx/(x
^{2}±a
^{2}), ∫dx/√x
^{2}±a
^{2}, ∫dx/√a
^{2−}x
^{2}, ∫dx/ax
^{2}+bx+c, ∫dx/√ax
^{2}+bx+c,
∫(px+q)/ax
^{2}+bx+c dx, ∫(px+q)/√ax
^{2}+bx+cdx, ∫ √a
^{2} ± x
^{2}dx, ∫√x
^{2}−a
^{2}dx,
∫ √ax
^{2} + bx + cdx and ∫(px + q)√ax2 + bx + cdx to be evaluated. Definite integrals as a
limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite
integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, arcs of circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable). 5. Differential Equations Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type – (dy/dx) + Py = Q , where P and Q are functions of x or constants
(dx/dy) + Px = Q , where P and Q are functions of y or constants.
UNITIV
VECTORS AND THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
1. Vectors
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors.
Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point,
negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a
scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of
vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product.
2. Three dimensional geometry
Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.
UNITV
LINEAR PROGRAMMING
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different
types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems,
graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions,
feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivial constrains).
UNITV Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different
Multiplications theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total Multiplications theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total
probability, Baye’s theorem. Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance
of haphazard variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

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