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NUCAT 2023 Syllabus: Physics
SYLLABUS: I PUC PHYSICS
Chapter 1: PHYSICAL WORLD
Physics: Scope and excitement of physics, Physics-technology and society
Mention of fundamental forces in nature - Nature of physical laws.
Chapter 2: UNIT OF MEASUREMENT
Unit of measurement - System of units - SI units - Fundamental and derived units - Length, mass and time
measurements - Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments.
Errors in measurement; Significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities - Dimensional analysis and its applications: (a) Checking of dimensional consistency
of equations and (b) Deducing relation among physical quantities.
Chapter 3: MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
Position and frame of reference - Definitions of path length and displacement - Definitions of average speed and
average velocity, instantaneous speed and instantaneous velocity and uniform and non-uniform motion.
Uniformly accelerated motion. Position-time graph,
Velocity-time graph: To show that area under the velocity time curve is equal to displacement.
Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion.
Derivation of v = v o + at , x = v o + 1⁄2 at 2 and v 2 = v o 2 + 2ax using v-t graph - Relative velocity.
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
Chapter 4: MOTION IN A PLANE
Scalars and vectors, Position and displacement vectors, Equality of vectors, Multiplication of a vector by real number.
Addition and subtraction of two vectors: Triangle method and parallelogram method. Unit vector, Resolution of a vector,
Rectangular components. Resultant of two concurrent vectors.
Scalar and vector product of two vectors with examples.
Motion in a plane with constant acceleration.
Projectile motion: Derivations of equation of path, time of flight, maximum height and horizontal range, of a
projectile. Uniform circular motion: Derivation of centripetal acceleration.
Chapter 5: LAWS OF MOTION
Aristotle’s fallacy, Newton’s first law of motion, Concept of inertia and force.
Concept of momentum - Newton’s second law of motion: Derivation of F= ma and definition of SI unit of force.
Impulse, impulsive force and examples - Newton’s third law of motion, Identification of action and reaction pairs
with examples in everyday life.
Law of conservation of linear momentum: Statement and proof in the case of collision of two bodies.
Condition for the equilibrium of a particle under the action of concurrent forces.
Friction: Static and kinetic friction - Laws of friction - Rolling friction - Methods of reducing of friction.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Derivation of maximum speed of a car moving on banked circular road and
discuss in the case of level circular road by taking θ = 0.
Chapter 6: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
WORK: Definition of Work: W = F. d and discussion of various cases - Work done by a constant force and by a
variable force. Kinetic energy - Work-energy theorem: Statement and proof in the case of rectilinear motion under
constant acceleration. Concept of potential energy - Principle of conservation of mechanical energy: Statement and
illustration in the case of freely falling body. Conservative and non-conservative forces with examples.
Potential energy of a spring - Mention of expression V(x) = kx 2/2.
POWER: Definition and derivation of power P = F.v
COLLISIONS: Elastic and inelastic collisions - Collisions in one dimension: Derivation of loss of kinetic energy in
completely inelastic collisions - Derivation of final velocity of masses undergoing elastic collision. Collisions in two
Chapter 7: SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION
Definitions of a rigid body, translatory motion and rotatory motion - Centre of mass of a two-particle system.
Mention of expression for position coordinates of centre of mass of (a) n-particle system (b) a rigid body and (c) a
uniform thin rod. Definition of angular velocity and mention of the relation v = rw.Definitions of angular acceleration
and moment of a force-torque - Angular momentum (l) of a particle: Derivation of dl/dt = τ.
Equilibrium of rigid body: Mention of conditions for mechanical equilibrium of a rigid body.
Definitions of the moment of inertia and radius of gyration.
Theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes: Statement and explanation.
Mention of expressions for a moment of inertia of simple geometrical objects.
Kinematics of rotational motion about a fixed axis: Mention of the equation of rotational motion.
Comparison of linear and rotational motion.
Principle of conservation of angular momentum: Statement and illustrations.
Chapter 8: GRAVITATION
Kepler’s laws (three laws) of planetary motion: Statement and explanation.
Universal law of gravitation: Statement and explanation.
Acceleration due to gravity of earth: Derivation of relation between g and G.
Variation of acceleration due to gravity with altitude (height) and depth: Derivation of acceleration due gravity at a
point (a) above and (b) below the surface of earth.
Gravitational potential energy: Derivation of gravitational potential energy.
Escape speed: Definition and derivation of expression for escape speed from the principle of conservation of energy.
Earth satellites: Derivation of orbital speed of earth satellite - Geostationary and polar satellites.
Chapter 9: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
Elasticity and plasticity - Elastic behavior of solids - Stress and strain - Hooke’s law: Stress–strain curve.
Elastic moduli; Definitions and expressions of Young’s modulus, Bulk modulus and Shear modulus of rigidity.
Poisson’s ratio - Elastic energy.
Chapter 10: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
Pressure: Definition - Derivation of pressure at a point inside a liquid - Gauge pressure.
Pascal’s law: Statement and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes).
Streamline flow: Equation of continuity - Turbulent flow - Critical speed.
Bernoulli’s principle; Statement - Explanation of Bernoulli’s equation - Illustration of Bernoulli’s principle in the case
of (a) blood flow and heart attack (b) dynamic lift of a ball and aerofoil.
Viscosity: Definition and mention of expression for coefficient of viscosity. Stoke’s law.
Reynolds’s number: Mention of expression - Classification of nature of flow on the basis of Reynolds’s number.
Surface tension: Surface energy and surface tension - Angle of contact - Applications of surface tension ideas to
drops, bubbles, capillary rise and action of detergents.
Chapter 11: THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Temperature and heat, Thermal expansion of solids: linear, area and volume expansion of solids – Thermal expansion of
liquids: Anomalous expansion of water, Thermal expansion of gases: Derivation of αV = 1/T for ideal gas.
Specific heat capacity: Definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity - Molar specific heat capacity at constant
pressure and Molar specific heat capacity at constant volume.
Principle of calorimetry - Change of state ; melting, fusion, melting point, regelation, boiling point, sublimation point
- Latent heat ; Latent heat of fusion and vapourisation.
Heat transfer: Conduction and thermal conductivity, Convection: Sea breeze and land breeze, Radiation: Newton’s
law of cooling. Stefan’s law - Qualitative ideas of black body radiation.
Wien’s displacement law - Greenhouse effect.
Chapter 12: THERMODYNAMICS
Thermal equilibrium - Zeroth law of Thermodynamics: Statement and explanation.
Heat, internal energy and work - First law of thermodynamics: Statement and explanation,
Isothermal process: Derivation of work-done in isothermal process.
Adiabatic process: Mention of the expression PVγ = constant, for adiabatic process.
Heat engines: Schematic representation and efficiency.
Refrigerators (Heat pumps): Schematic diagram and coefficient of performance.
Second law of thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck statement and Clausius statement.
Reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot’s engine; Carnot cycle and efficiency.
Chapter 13: KINETIC THEORY
Equation of state of a perfect gas - Kinetic theory of an ideal gas: Derivation of P =(1/3)mnv̅ 2
Kinetic interpretation of temperature ; Mention of expression for average kinetic energy of a molecule in terms of
absolute temperature - Definition of rms speed of gas molecules.
Degrees of freedom - Law of equipartition of energy: Statement and application to specific heat capacities of
monatomic, diatomic and polyatomic gases - Concept of mean free path.
Chapter 14: OSCILLATIONS
Periodic & oscillatory motion: Definitions of Period & Frequency, Displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION: Definition, equation, graphical representation of displacement with time, Phase.
Mention of expressions for velocity and acceleration - Force law for simple harmonic motion : F(t) = −kx(t).
Energy in simple harmonic motion: Derivations of kinetic energy, potential energy and total energy.
Oscillations due to a spring - Restoring force & force constant - Mention of expression for time period.
Simple pendulum: Derivation of expression for time period - Qualitative ideas of damped, forced and free
oscillations - Resonance.
Chapter 15: WAVES
Wave motion: Longitudinal and transverse waves, Mention of displacement relation in a progressive wave-
Amplitude and phase - Wavelength and angular wave number - Period, frequency and angular frequency.
Speed of traveling wave: Mention of expression for velocity of wave: v = λv.
Mention of expression for speed of transverse wave on a stretched string v = √T/μ
Speed of a longitudinal wave(sound) ; Newton’s formula and Laplace’s correction.
Qualitative explanation of principle of superposition of waves. Reflection of waves at rigid and open boundary.
Standing waves and normal modes: Theory, extension to stretched string and air columns - Fundamental mode and
harmonics - Theory of beats. Doppler Effect: Explanation of the phenomenon.
Derivation of apparent frequency in the case of (a) moving source and stationary observer, (b) moving observer and
stationary source and (c) both source and observer moving.
SYLLABUS: II PUC PHYSICS
Chapter 2: ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE
Electric Potential: Definition of electric potential at a point - Definition of potential difference,
Derivation of electric potential due to a point charge, Mention of expression for electric potential due a short
electric dipole at any point, Comparison of the variation of electric potential with distance between a point
charge and an electric dipole, Application of superposition principle to find electric potential due to a
system of charges.
Equipotential surfaces: Properties, Derivation of the relation between electric field and potential.
Electric potential energy: Definition of electric potential energy of a system of charges.
Derivation of electric potential energy of a system of two point charges in the absence of external electric
field, Mention of expression for electric potential energy of a system of two point charges in an external electric field.
Mention of expression for the electric potential energy of an electric dipole placed in a uniform electric field.
Electrostatics of conductors: Dielectrics and electric polarization.
Polar and non-polar dielectrics and their behaviour in the absence and presence of external electric field.
Capacitors and capacitance:
Parallel plate capacitor - Derivation of the capacitance of a capacitor without dielectric medium,
Mention of expression for capacitance of a capacitor with dielectric medium - Definition of dielectric
Combination of capacitors:
Derivation of effective capacitance of two capacitors (a) in series combination and (b) in parallel
Derivation of energy stored in a capacitor.
Chapter 3: CURRENT ELECTRICITY
Definition of electric current, Electric currents in a conductor - Definition of current density.
Ohm’s law: Statement and explanation, Limitations of Ohm’s law.
Dependence of electrical resistance on the dimensions of conductor and mention of R= ρl/A,
Electrical resistivity and conductivity - Derivation of the relation
j =σE (equivalent form of Ohm’s law).
Drift of electrons and origin of resistivity; Definitions of drift velocity, relaxation time and mobility.
Derivation of expression for conductivity of a material : σ = ne 2τ/m.
Colour code of carbon resistors - Temperature dependence of resistivity of metals and semiconductors.
Electrical energy and power:Mention of expression for power loss.
COMBINATION OF RESISTORS: Derivation of effective resistance of two resistors (a) in series
combination and (b) in parallel combination.
CELLS: Definitions of internal resistance of a cell, terminal potential difference and emf of a cell.
Derivation of current drawn by external resistance [I=ε/(R+r)].
Combination of cells: Derivation of expressions for equivalent emf and equivalent internal resistance
(a) in series and (b) in parallel combination.
Kirchhoff’s rules: Statements and explanation.
Wheatstone bridge: Derivation of balancing condition - Metre Bridge.
Potentiometer: Principle - Mention of applications of Potentiometer:
(a) to compare emf’s of two cells and (b) to measure internal resistance of a cell.
Chapter 6: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
Experiments of Faraday and Henry, Magnetic flux: Φ = B. A; Statement and explanation of Faraday’s law of
electromagnetic induction, Lenz’s law: Statement, explanation and its significance as conservation of
Motional emf: Derivation of expression for motional emf: ε = Blv,
Eddy currents - Advantages of eddy currents with common practical applications.
Inductance: Mutual inductance: Mention of expression for mutual inductance of two coaxial solenoids,
Mention of expression for induced emf: ε = −M (dI/dt).
Self-inductance: Mention of expression for self-inductance of the solenoid,
Mention of expression for induced emf: ε = −M (dI/dt)
Derivation of energy stored in the coil.
AC generator: Labelled diagram
Derivation of instantaneous emf in an ac generator ε= NBAω(sinωt) = ε 0(sinωt).
Chapter 7: ALTERNATING CURRENT
Mention of expression for instantaneous, peak and rms values of alternating current and voltage.
AC voltage applied to a resistor: Derivation of expression for current, mention of phase relation between
voltage and current and phasor representation.
AC voltage applied to an inductor: Derivation of expression for current, mention of phase relation between
voltage and current, phasor representation and mention of expression for inductive reactance.
AC voltage applied to a capacitor: Derivation of expression for current, mention of phase relation between
voltage and current, phasor representation and mention of expression for capacitive reactance.
AC voltage applied to series LCR circuit: Derivation of expression for impendence, current and phase angle
using phasor diagram only- Electrical resonance - Derivation of expression for resonant frequency(0)
Mention of expressions for bandwidth and sharpness (quality factor).
Mention of expression for power in an ac circuit - Power factor and qualitative discussion in the case of
resistive, inductive and capacitive circuit - Meaning of wattless current.
LC oscillations: Qualitative explanation, Mention of expressionfor frequency of LC oscillations and
Mention of expression for total energy of LC circuit.
Transformer: Principle, construction and working - Mention of expression for turns ratio - Sources of energy
Chapter 8: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Displacement current - Mention the need for displacement current (inconsistency of Ampere’s circuital law)
Mention of expression for displacement current - Mention of expression for Ampere-Maxwell law.
Electromagnetic waves: Sources and nature of electromagnetic waves and their characteristics.
Mention of expression of speed of light (in vacuum and in medium in terms of permeability and
Electromagnetic spectrum: Wavelength range of various regions (parts or components) and their uses.
Mention of applications total internal reflection (mirage, total reflecting prisms and optical fibers).
Refraction at spherical surfaces: Derivation of the relation between u, v, n and R.
Refraction by a lens: Derivation of lens-maker’s formula – Mention of thin lens formula.
Definition and expression for linear magnification.
Power of a lens and mention of expression for it (P = 1/f).
Combination of thin lenses in contact: Derivation of equivalent focal length of two thin lenses in contact.
Refraction of light through a prism: Derivation of refractive index of the material of the prism.
Scattering of light: Rayleigh’s scattering law (I ∝1/λ)
4): Blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
MICROSCOPE: Simple microscope, Ray diagram for image formation, Mention of expression for the magnifying power.
Compound microscope: Ray diagram for image formation - Mention of expressions for the magnifying
power when the final image is at (a) least distance of distinct vision and (b) infinity.
TELESCOPE: Ray diagram for image formation, Mentionof expression for the magnifying power and
length of the telescope (tube length) L = f o + f e, Schematic ray diagram of reflecting telescope.
Chapter 10: WAVE OPTICS
Wavefront (plane, spherical and cylindrical) - Huygens’ principle.
Refraction of plane wave at a plane surface (rarer to denser): Derivation of Snell’s law.
Reflection of a plane wave by a plane surface: Derivation of the law of reflection.
Explanation of refraction of plane wave through a thin prism and convex lens through diagrams,
Reflection of plane wave by a concave mirror through diagram.
INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT:
Coherent sources - Theory of interference (with equal amplitude – arriving at the conditions for constructive
and destructive interference)- Young’s experiment: Brief description –Derivation of expression for fringe
DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT: Explanation of the phenomenon - Diffraction due to a single slit - Mention of
the conditions for diffraction minima and maxima - Intensity distribution curve - Resolving power of an
optical instruments, Mention of expressions for limit of resolution of (a) microscope and (b) telescope.
Methods of increasing the resolving power of microscope and telescope.
POLARISATION: Explanation of the phenomenon - Plane polarised light - Polaroids and its uses - Pass axis.
Malu’s law, Polarisation by reflection,
Brewster’s angle - Arriving at Brewster’s law - Statement of Brewster’s law.
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Electron emission: Definition of electron volt (eV) and work function - Types of electron emission.
Photoelectric effect: Mention of Hertz’s observations - Mention of Hallwachs’ and Lenard’s observations.
Definition of threshold frequency - Explanation of the phenomenon of the Photoelectric effect,
Experimental setup to study Photoelectric effect - observations.
Mention of effect of (a) intensity of light on photocurrent, (b) potential on photocurrent and (c) frequency of
incident radiation on stopping potential - Definition of stopping potential.
Einstein’s photoelectric equation: Explanation of experimental results.
Particle nature of light: Characteristics of photon.
Wave nature of matter: de-Broglie hypothesis - Mention of de-Broglie relation.
Mention of expression for de-Broglie wavelength in terms of (a) kinetic energy and (b) acceleration
Davisson and Germer experiment: (No experimental details) Brief explanation of conclusion - wave nature
of electrons on the basis of electron diffraction.
Chapter 12: ATOMS
Alpha particle scattering: Schematic diagram of Geiger-Marsden experiment, observations and conclusion.
Rutherford’s model of an atom- Derivation of total energy of electron in hydrogen atom in terms of orbit radius.
Atomic spectra: Spectral series of hydrogen, Mention of empirical formulae for wave number (1/λ) of
different series. Bohr model of hydrogen atom: Bohr’s postulates - Derivation of Bohr radius - Derivation
of energy of electron in stationary states of hydrogen atom - Line spectra of hydrogen atom, Derivation of
frequency of emitted radiation - Mention of expression for Rydberg constant - Energy level diagram - de-
Broglie’s explanation of Bohr’s second postulate - Limitations of Bohr model.
Chapter 13: NUCLEI
Definition of atomic mass unit(u)- Isotopes, isobars and isotones – Composition, size, mass and density of the nucleus,
Einstein’s mass-energy relation - Nuclear binding energy; Brief explanation of mass defect and binding
energy - Binding energy per nucleon - Binding energy curve - Nuclear force and its characteristics.
Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion with examples.
Radioactivity: Law of radioactive decay - Derivation of N = N oe −λt,
Activity (decay rate) and its units: becquerel and curie.
Definition and derivation of half-life of radioactive element - Definition of mean life and mention its
Alpha decay, beta decay (negative and positive) and gamma decay with examples - Q value of nuclear
Chapter 14: SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS
Energy bands in solids: Valance band, conduction band and energy gap.
Classification of solids on the basis of energy bands.
Semiconductors: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors (p type and n type), p-n junction, p-n junction
Semiconductor diode: Forward and reverse bias: I-V characteristics,
Definitions of cut-in-voltage, breakdown voltage and reverse saturation current.
Diode as a rectifier: Circuit diagram, working, input and output waveforms for (a) half-wave and (b) full-wave rectifiers.
Zener diode: I-V characteristics - Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Optoelectronic junction devices:
Working principles and mention of applications of photodiode, LED and solar cell.
Logic gates: Logic symbol and truth table of NOT, OR, AND, NAND and NOR gates.
SYLLABUS: I PUC CHEMISTRY
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of Chemistry.
Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and
Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and
molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Structure of Atom
Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson's model and its
limitations. Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and
subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle,
concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals -
Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of
half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and
the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert
gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements
with atomic number greater than 100.
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of
covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent
molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some
simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules(qualitative idea only),
States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas
laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's
law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation.
Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular
speeds (elementary idea), Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea
only, no mathematical derivations)
Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement
of ΔU and ΔH, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion,
formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of
Thermodynamics (brief introduction)
Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous
processes, and criteria for equilibrium.
Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action,
equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium- ionization
of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid
strength, concept of pH, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, Henderson Equation,
solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms
of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions.
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen,
hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen
peroxide -preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.
s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of
each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic
and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.
Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:
Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogen carbonate, Biological
importance of Sodium and Potassium.
Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and
Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction to p -Block Elements
Group 13 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties,
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron -
physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides,
Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.
Group 14 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties,
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements. Carbon-catenation,
allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important
compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.
Organic Chemistry -Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and
IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive
effect, electrometric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a
covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic
Classification of Hydrocarbons
Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions
including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties,
methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides
(Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilicaddition.
Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation,
chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen
halides and water.
Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of
electrophilic substitution. Nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation,
directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major
atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse
effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for
reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental pollution.
SYLLABUS: II PUC Chemistry
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids,
amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional
lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms
per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in
liquids, solid solutions, Raoult's law, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation
of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using
colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hofffactor.
Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical
cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions,
specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law,
electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead
accumulator, fuel cells,corrosion.
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration,
temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated
rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary
idea, no mathematical treatment), activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis:
homogenous and heterogenous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts; enzyme catalysis, colloidal state:
distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic, multi-molecular and
macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis,
coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and
refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends
in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen:
preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only); Phosphorus -
allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and properties of Phosphine, Halides and
Oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in
physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides,
Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur-
dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in
physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and
Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and
chemical properties uses.
d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general
trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation
states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation,
preparation and properties of K 2Cr 2O 7 and KMnO 4.
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction
and its consequences.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and
shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT,
and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,
extraction of metals and biological system).
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation
mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in
monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform,
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols
only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with
special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol,
electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties;
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties,
uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L
configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen);
Importance of carbohydrates.
Proteins -Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins -
primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of
proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization, and some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters,
bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Chemistry in Everyday life
Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquillizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility
drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihist amines.
Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
SYLLABUS: I PUC Mathematics
SETS AND FUNCTIONS
Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite and Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. Subsets of
the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn
diagrams. Union and intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set, Properties of
2. Relations and Functions
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the Cartesian product of two
finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R × R × R).
Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, co-domain and range of a
Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial
representation of a function, domain, co-domain and range of a function. Real
valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions,
constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer
functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of
3. Trigonometric Functions
Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion from
one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth
of the identity sin2x + cos2x = 1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their
graphs. Expressing sin(x + y) and cos(x + y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx and cosy.
Identities related to sin2x, cos2x, tan2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of
trigonometric equations of the type sinθ = sinα, cosθ = cosα and tanθ = tanα. Proofs and
simple applications of sine and cosine formulae.
1. Principle of Mathematical Induction
Process of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural
numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction
and simple applications.
2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
Need for complex numbers, especially √−1 , to be motivated by inability to solve every
quadratic equation. Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane
and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra,
solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system, Square-root of a Complex
3. Linear Inequalities
Linear inequalities, Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their
representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables.
Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables - graphically.
4. Permutations and Combinations
Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. Permutations and combinations derivation of
formulae and their connections, simple applications.
5. Binomial Theorem
History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s
triangle, general and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.
6. Sequence and Series
Sequence and Series. Arithmetic Progression (A.P.), Arithmetic Mean (A.M.), Geometric
Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P. Arithmetic and geometric
series, infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric mean (G.M.). Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum
to n terms of the special series : ∑n , ∑ n 2 and ∑ n 3.
Brief recall of 2-D from earlier classes, shifting of origin. Slope of a line and angle between two
lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, point-slope form, slope-intercept
form, two-point form, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Equation of
family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Distance of a point from a
2. Conic Sections
Sections of a cone: Circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of
intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple
properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.
3. Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance
between two points and section formula.
1. Limits and Derivatives
Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically,
The intuitive idea of limit. lim x→0 loge(1+x)/x, lim x→0e x−1/x. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of
the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of
polynomial and trigonometric functions.
Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/phrases - consolidating
the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”,
“and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through a variety of
examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving
the connecting words - the difference between contradiction, converse and
STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
Measure of dispersion; mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped
data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.
Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events: Occurrence of
events, ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events. Axiomatic (set
theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event,
probability of ‘not’, ‘and’, & ‘or’ events.
SYLLABUS: II PUC Mathematics
RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
1. Relations and Functions
Types of relations: Reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto
functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.
2. Inverse Trigonometric Function
Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions.
Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix,
symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of
matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non-
commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is
the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column
operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all
matrices will have real entries).
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 × 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors,
cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of
a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear
equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having
unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
1. Continuity and Differentiability
Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of
inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concepts of exponential,
logarithmic functions. Derivatives of loge x and e x. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of
functions expressed in parametric forms. Second-order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean
Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.
2. Applications of Derivatives
Applications of derivatives: Rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and
normals, approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and
second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles
and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).
Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by
substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of the type –
∫dx/(x 2±a 2), ∫dx/√x 2±a 2, ∫dx/√a 2−x 2, ∫dx/ax 2+bx+c, ∫dx/√ax 2+bx+c,
∫(px+q)/ax 2+bx+c dx, ∫(px+q)/√ax 2+bx+cdx, ∫ √a 2 ± x 2dx, ∫√x 2−a 2dx,
∫ √ax 2 + bx + cdx and ∫(px + q)√ax2 + bx + cdx to be evaluated. Definite integrals as a
limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite
integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, arcs of
circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), area between the two above said curves (the
region should be clearly identifiable).
5. Differential Equations
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.
Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential
equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order
and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type –
(dy/dx) + Py = Q , where P and Q are functions of x or constants
(dx/dy) + Px = Q , where P and Q are functions of y or constants.
VECTORS AND THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors.
Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point,
negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a
scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of
vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product.
2. Three dimensional geometry
Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar
and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle
between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different
types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems,
graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions,
feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constrains).
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different
Multiplications theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total
Multiplications theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total
probability, Baye’s theorem. Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance
of haphazard variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.
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