GAT B (GAT-B/BET) MSc Biotechnology Syllabus 2022: Download Subject/Section wise PDF

Graduate Aptitude Test – Biotechnology 2022 ( GAT B )

This exam is conducted for courses given below:
Mohit  Dhyani

Mohit DhyaniAssistant Manager - Editorial Content

Updated on Jun 28, 2024 11:32 IST

GAT-B Syllabus 2025 - National Testing Agency mentions the GAT-B 2025 syllabus on the official website. Candidates can also get the syllabus at Applicants appearing in the exam must refer to the syllabus of GAT-B 2025 for their preparations. GAT-B syllabus comprises important chapters and topics asked in the exam. Going through GAT-B 2025 syllabus helps candidates to prepare an effective strategy to ace the exam with a good score. GAT-B syllabus PDF is available online along with the official notification. 

Having an idea of GAT-B/ BET 2025 syllabus helps candidates to prepare in a systematic order. Going through GAT-B syllabus also enables applicants to figure out their weak and strong areas. Along with the syllabus, candidates can also refer to the GAT-B previous year question papers to understand the scheme of exam. For more details about GAT-B/BET syllabus 2025, candidates can refer to the article below. 

GAT-B Syllabus 2025 - Graduate Aptitude Test




Section A 

This section is of 10+2 level in the subjects of Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology 


Section B 















  • Structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport
  • Enzymes- classification, kinetics and mechanism of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics.


  • Structure and classification; Microbial classification and diversity (bacterial, algal and fungal)
  • Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation
  • Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interaction.


  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure
  • Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell-Cell communication, Cell signaling and signal transduction.

Genes/ Chromosome

  • Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes
  • Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • Mendelian inheritance, Gene interaction
  • Complementation; Linkage, genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation);
  • Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements;
  • RNA interference; DNA damage and repair
  • Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases.


  • Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal
  • Centrifugation- high speed and ultra
  • Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS, NMR
  • Principles of chromatography- ion
    exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC, HPLC, FPLC
  • Electrophoresis; Microarray


  • History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity
  • Antigen; Antibody structure and function
  • Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion
  • Antigen-antibody reaction, Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages;
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody
  • Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
  • Major bioinformatics resources and search tools
  • Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (bimolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny);
  • Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, and protein-ligand interaction).
Enzyme/ Protein
  • Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids,
  • Ti-plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library
  • Gene isolation, cloning, and expression; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling;
  • DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting
  • In- situ hybridization; RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy
  • Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors
  • Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization
  • Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures
  • Hairy root culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance
Animal cell
  • Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions
  • Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture
  • Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture
  • Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals.
Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system
  • Principle of reactor design, ideal and non- ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer
  • Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation
  • Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation
  • Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors
  • Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility analysis.
Engineering principle of bioprocessing
  • Engineering principle of bioprocessing - Upstream production and downstream; Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms;
  • Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites; Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics
  • Large-scale production and purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane-based bio-separation methods
  • Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes
  • Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes
Tissue culture and its application
  • Tissue culture and its application, Micropropagation. Meristem culture and production of virus-free plants.
  • Anther and microspore culture. Embryo and ovary culture. Protoplast isolation. Protoplast fusion-somatic hybrids, cybrid. Somaclones, Synthetic seeds. In vitro germplasm conservation. Cryopreservation.
  • Organelle DNA, Satellite-and repetitive DNAs. DNA repair. Regulation of gene expression. Recombinant DNA technology vectors, restriction enzymes, gene cloning. Methods of gene transfer in plants.
  • Achievements and recent developments of genetic engineering in agriculture. Development of transgenics for biotic & abiotic stress tolerance, bioethics, terminator technology, nanotechnology, DNA fingerprinting, and gene silencing.

BET 2025 Syllabus: Section A

Candidates can check syllabus of Section A of BET 2025 exam below;




Section A  General  Aptitude Comprehension, Verbal and Non-verbal reasoning, Quantitative aptitude
Section A (General Biotechnology) Biomolecular structure and function
  • Covalent structure of Amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids
  • Forces that stabilize biomolecules: electrostatic and van der Waal‟s interaction, hydrogen bonding. Interactions with solvents, Hydrophobic effect.
  • Protein Structure, Ramachandran plot. Protein domains and domain architecture. Quaternary structure of proteins
  • Conformation of Nucleic acids: Structural characteristics of A, B and Z-DNA. 3D structure of t-RNA, ribozymes and riboswitches
  • Basic Thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics. Concepts of ∆G, ∆H and ∆S
  • Physical properties of water and their role in biology. Concepts of pH, ionic strength and buffers.
  • Chemical kinetics: Concepts of order and molecularity of a chemical reaction. Derivation of first and second order rate equation, measurement of rate constants. Concept of activation energy.
  • Enzymology: Introduction to enzymes. Types of enzymatic reaction mechanisms, Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Competitive, Non-competitive and Un-competitive inhibition. Bi-substrate reaction kinetics. Allostery
  Methods in Biotechnology
  • Concepts of precision and accuracy in experimental measurements. Concept of signal-to-noise ratio.
  • Biostatistics: Measures of Central Tendency. Fundamental ideas of probability and probability distributions: Binomial, Poisson and Gaussian distributions. Concept of the Central Limit Theorem. Hypothesis testing, Correlation and regression. Basic concepts of design of Experiments.
  • Biochemical Methods: Chromatography: Ion exchange, Gel Filtration and Affinity chromatography. Electrophoresis: Native and SDS-PAGE. Isoelectric focusing. 2DPAGE and its applications.
  • UV/Vis spectrophotometry. Beer-Lambert‟s law and its use in determination of protein/ nucleic acid concentration.
  • Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Basic concepts of excitation and emission. Quenching, Stern-Volmer Plots. Theory and applications of FRET and fluorescence lifetime measurements.
  • Fundamentals of CD, IR and Raman spectroscopy and their use in studying biomolecular conformation.
  • Centrifugation: Basic concepts of centrifugation. Calculation of g value from RPM, Density gradient centrifugation. Sedimentation velocity and Sedimentation equilibrium. Separation of sub-cellular components and macromolecules using high speed and ultracentrifugation.
  • Microscopy: Bright field, phase contrast, fluorescence, confocal, and electron microscopy.
  • Fundamentals of X-ray, NMR and cryo-electron microscopy for determination of biomolecular structure.
  Organization of structure and functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
  • Cell wall and Cell Membrane: physical structure of model membranes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, lipid bilayer, membrane proteins, other constituents; diffusion, osmosis, active transport, regulation of intracellular transport and electrical properties.
    Structural organization and functions of cell organelles: nucleus, mitochondria,
  • Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, Chloroplast, peroxisomes, vacuoles. Cytoskeletons structure and motility function.
  • Organization of genomes: genes and chromosomes, Operon, unique and repetitive DNA, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons.
  • Cell division and cell cycle: Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, Cell cycle and its regulation, Apoptosis, Necrosis and Autophagy.
  • Cell transformation and cancer, oncogenes and proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, metastasis. Therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth.
  Cellular processes
  • DNA replication, repair and recombination (Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific recombination).
  • Transcription of various types of RNAs and their processing and modifications. Transcription factors and machinery including RNA polymerases, formation of initiation complex, elongation and termination of transcription. Regulation of transcription: activators (enhancers) and repressors, Locus control regions. Structure and function of different types of RNA and mRNPs. RNA transport, localization and function.
  • Protein synthesis, processing and transport of proteins: Ribosome, mRNA structure, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. Mechanism of translation: Initiation, elongation and termination factors and translational proof-reading.
    Regulation of Translation- global vs mRNA-specific. Translation inhibitors, Posttranslational modifications of proteins. Protein trafficking and transport.
  • Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level: Regulation of gene expression in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, role of chromatin, chromatin remodelling and gene silencing, Epigenetic regulation.
  • Host-pathogen interaction: Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens like bacteria, viruses and protozoans into animal and plant host cells, alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens, virus-induced cell transformation, pathogen-induced
    diseases in animals and plants, cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells.
  • Cell signaling: Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through Gprotein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component systems, light signaling in
    plants, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing.
  • Cellular communication: General principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, tight junctions, communicating junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation. Regulation of hematopoiesis, differentiation and development.
  • Innate and adaptive immune system: Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules. generation of antibody diversity,
    monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions,
  • MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis), parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccines.
  Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Enzymes used in Recombinant DNA technology.
  • Isolation and purification of DNA (genomic and plasmid) and RNA. Various methods of separation, characterization of nucleic acids including Southern and Northern hybridizations.
  • Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors and their purification. Western blotting.
  • Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries. Plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors. In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms.
  • Isolation and amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences, PCR, RT PCR and qRT PCR, DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing.
  • Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression, such as micro array based techniques.
  • Analysis of DNA polymorphism: RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques, Biosafety regulations and IPR.
  Genetics, Phylogeny & Evolution
  • Chromosomal inheritance: Principles of Mendelian inheritance, codominance, incomplete dominance, gene interactions, pleiotropy, genomic imprinting, linkage and cross-over, sex-linked inheritance, Population Genetics and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
  • Extrachromosomal inheritance: Maternal inheritance (mitochondria and chloroplast), Gene concept: Allele, multiple alleles, pseudo alleles.
  • Genetic analysis: Linkage maps, mapping with molecular markers, tetrad analysis, gene transfer in bacteria: transformation, conjugation, transduction, sex-duction, fine structure analysis of gene.
  • Mutation: Spontaneous, induced, lethal, conditional, reversion, mutagenic suppression, germinal and somatic mutation, insertion, deletion, duplication, translocation, transposition, ploidy.
  • DNA fingerprinting and its applications, DNA barcoding, marker-assisted selection and QTL mapping
  • Species concept in archaea, bacteria and eukarya, Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary relationship among taxa, MLST.
  Genomics and Proteomics
  • Introduction to Genomics: Structure and organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes - nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes; Computational analysis of sequences- finding genes and regulatory regions; Gene annotation; Similarity searches; Pairwise and multiple alignments; Alignment statistics; Prediction of gene function using homology, context, structures, networks; Genetic variation polymorphism, deleterious mutation; Phylogenetics; Tools for genome analysis– PCR, RFLP, DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, Automated DNA sequencing; Linkage and pedigree analysis; Construction of genetic maps; Physical maps, FISH to identify chromosome landmarks.
  • Genome sequencing: Human genome project-landmarks on chromosomes generated by various mapping methods; BAC libraries and shotgun libraries preparation; Physical map-cytogenetic map, contig map, restriction map, DNA sequence; DNA sequencing and sequence assembly; Model organisms and other genome projects; Comparative genomics of relevant organisms such as pathogens and non-pathogens; Evolution of a pathogen. Taxonomic classification of organisms using molecular markers -16S rRNA typing/sequencing.
  • DNA Microarray technology: Basic principles and design: cDNA and oligonucleotide arrays; Applications: Global gene expression analysis, Comparative transcriptomic, Differential gene expression; Genotyping/SNP detection; Detection technology; Computational analysis of microarray data.
  • Proteomics: Outline of a typical proteomics experiment; Identification and analysis of proteins by 2D analysis; Spot visualization and picking; Tryptic digestion of protein and peptide fingerprinting; Mass spectrometry; ion source (MALDI, spray sources);
    analyzer (ToF, quadrupole, quadrupole ion trap) and detector; clinical proteomics and disease biomarkers; Prions; proteins in disease; Protein-protein interactions: Solid phase ELISA, pull-down assays (using GST-tagged protein), far western analysis, by surface plasmon resonance technique, Yeast two-hybrid system, Phage display; Protein interaction maps; Protein arrays-definition, applications- diagnostics, expression profiling.
  IPR, Biosafety & Bioethics
  • Types of IP: Patents, Trademarks, Copyright & Related Rights, Industrial Design, Traditional Knowledge, Geographical Indications, Protection of New GMOs; International framework for the protection of IP. IP as a factor in R&D; IPs of relevance to Biotechnology and few Case Studies; Introduction to History of GATT, WTO, WIPO and TRIPS
  • Invention in context of “prior art”; Patent databases; Searching International Databases; Country-wise patent searches (USPTO, EPO, India, etc.),  Analysis and report formation
  • Types of patents; Indian Patent Act 1970; Recent Amendments; Filing of a patent application; Precautions before patenting-disclosure/non-disclosure; WIPO Treaties; Budapest Treaty; PCT and Implications; Role of a Country Patent Office; Procedure for
    filing a PCT application.
  • Patent application- forms and guidelines, fee structure, time frames; Types of patent applications: provisional and complete specifications; PCT and convention patent applications; International patenting-requirement, procedures and costs; Financial
    assistance for patenting-introduction to existing schemes; Publication of patents-gazette of India, status in Europe and US Patenting by research students, lecturers and scientists,University/organizational rules in India and abroad, credit sharing by workers, financial
    incentives, Patent infringement- meaning, scope, litigation, case studies and examples.
  • Biosafety: Introduction; Historical Background; Introduction to Biological Safety Cabinets; Primary Containment for Biohazards; Biosafety Levels; Biosafety Levels of Specific Microorganisms; Recommended Biosafety Levels for Infectious Agents and Infected Animals; Biosafety guidelines - Government of India; Definition of GMOs & LMOs; Roles of Institutional Biosafety Committee, RCGM, GEAC etc. for GMO applications in food and agriculture; Environmental release of GMOs; Risk Analysis, Risk Assessment; Risk management and communication; Overview of National Regulations and relevant International Agreements including Cartagena Protocol.
  • Bioethics: Concepts; Philosophical considerations; Epistemology of Science; Ethical Terms; Principles & Theories; Relevance to Biotechnology; Ethics and the Law Issues: Genetic Engineering, Stem Cells, Cloning, Medical techniques, Trans-humanism,
    Bioweapons; Research concerns - Animal Rights, Ethics of Human Cloning, Reproduction and Stem Cell Research; Emerging issues: Biotechnology‟s Impact on Society; DNA on the Witness Stand - Use of genetic evidence in civil and criminal court cases; Challenges to Public Policy – To Regulate or Not to Regulate; Improving public understanding of biotechnology products to correct misconceptions.

BET 2025 Syllabus: Section B(Specialized Branches in Biotechnology)

GAT-B Syllabus 2025 PDF – Download Here   

BET Syllabus 2025 - Part A (General Biotechnology)

Candidates can check BET 2025 syllabus for General Biotechnology from below. 

  • Biomolecular structure and function 
  • Methods in Biotechnology 
  • Organization of structure and functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 
  • Cellular processes 
  • Recombinant DNA Technology 
  • Genetics, Phylogeny & Evolution 
  • Genomics and Proteomics 
  • IPR, Biosafety & Bioethics 

Also Read: 

BET 2025 Syllabus - Part B (Specialized Branches in Biotechnology)



Agricultural Biotechnology 

  • Plant Biology, physiology, molecular biology and seed technology 
  • Tissue Culture, Transgenic Technologies and Biotechnology 
  • Molecular Breeding and Genomics 
  • Abiotic and Biotic Stress Biology 
  • Biodiversity 

Animal Biotechnology 

  • Animal Physiology and Biochemistry 
  • Histology and Embryology 
  • Animal Parasitology 
  • Animal Virology 
  • Immunology 
  • Molecular Medicine and Surgery 
  • Research Methodologies 

M. Tech. Biotechnology, Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology 

  • Introductory Mathematics 
  • Engineering Principles 
  • Thermodynamics in Biological Systems 
  • Downstream Processing in Biotechnology 
  • Bioprocess Plant Design 

Bioinformatics & Computational Biology 

  • Major Bioinformatics Resources 
  • Database Searches 
  • Sequence Analysis, Basic concepts 
  • Classification and comparison of protein 3D structures 
  • Application in drug design 

Environmental Biotechnology 

  • Basic Ecological Concepts and Principles 
  • Chemistry of organic and inorganic chemicals polluting Environment 
  • Treatment of Typical Industrial Effluents 
  • Environmental Pollution control 
  • Environment-friendly technologies 
  • Global environmental problems 

Medical Biotechnology 

  • ImmunoTechnology 
  • Genetics in Medical Practice 
  • CMI and Imaging techniques 
  • Genetics of Neurogenetic Disorders 
  • Components of genetic counseling 
  • Infections of the Respiratory system 
  • Host-pathogen interactions in a disease process 
  • Proteomics based diagnosis 

Molecular and Human Genetics 

  • Cell Biology and Cytogenetics 
  • Principles of Genetics 
  • Human Genome 
  • Common genetic disorders 

 BET Syllabus 2025 PDF – Download Here  

GAT-B Exam Pattern 2025

National Testing Agency has released the GAT-B/BET 2025 exam pattern along with the official notification at the official website. Applicants appearing in the exam must go through the exam pattern of GAT-B 2025 for their preparations. GAT-B exam pattern comprises number of questions, marking scheme, duration and others. Candidates can also refer to the GAT-B syllabus 2025 along with the exam pattern.  



Mode of exam  


Question Type  

Multiple Choice Question  

Duration of exam  

3 hours  

Number of sections  

2 (Two) -- Part 1 and 2  

Questions in Part 1  

60 questions  

Questions in Part 2  

100 questions (60 to attempt)  



Negative Marking  

Part-1: For each wrong answer, 0.5 (half) mark will be deducted  

Part-2: For each wrong answer, one (1) mark will be deducted 

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