What is a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)?

What is a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)?

7 mins readComment
Anshuman Singh
Senior Executive - Content
Updated on Apr 23, 2024 12:04 IST

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are self-configured wireless networks comprising sensor nodes that monitor diverse parameters. These nodes operate independently, forming a network without prior infrastructure transmitting data wirelessly.

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

Learn about their components, deployment strategies, applications, advantages, and challenges.

Table of Content (TOC)

  1. What is a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)?
  2. WSN History & Evolution
  3. Components of Wireless Sensor Networks
  4. WSN Deployment Strategies
  5. Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
  6. Challenges of WSN
  7. Advantages of WSN

What is a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)?

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a self-configured, infrastructure-less wireless network. WSN network comprises a group of wireless sensor nodes that communicate wirelessly and are distributed in an ad-hoc manner (randomly) to monitor various conditions, such as environmental or physical parameters within a system.

In a WSN, each sensor node is a small but powerful device equipped with a microcontroller, radio frequency receiver and transceiver, power source, and memory for wireless communication. These nodes are designed to operate independently, configuring themselves into a network without needing a pre-existing infrastructure or transmission media, such as cables. 

Sensor nodes can collect data continuously or in response to specific events, like a security camera that only records when it detects movement. The data collected by individual sensor nodes is transmitted to a central node known as the Base Station in a WSN System. The Base Station acts as a point or place where data from across the network is compiled and sent through the Internet

WSN History & Evolution

The concept of WSNs originated from military applications in the late 20th century, primarily for surveillance purposes. Over the years, the evolution of WSN technology has seen tremendous advancements, transitioning from simple monitoring systems to complex networks capable of intelligent decision-making. 

Early Wireless Sensor Networks in homes were like basic smoke alarms, beeping only when there was smoke. Now, WSNs in smart homes can detect smoke or fire and pinpoint its exact location, send instant alerts to your phone, and automatically alert emergency services.

Components of Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Sensors: These components are responsible for data acquisition, i.e., they collect environmental data (variables) and convert it into electrical signals through a process known as transduction. In lay terms, sensors are tiny electric noses, ears, and fingers that 'feel' the environment and tell a computer what it 'senses' in a language it understands.
  • Radio Nodes: These components are equipped with a microcontroller for data processing, a transceiver for wireless communication, external memory for data storage, and a power source to remain operational. They receive the sensor's electrical signals and send this data to the WLAN access point. 
  • WLAN Access Points: This component receives data wirelessly from the radio nodes, often via the Internet. Once received, it forwards it to the evaluation software. 
  • Evaluation Software: This software analyzes the data received from the WLAN Access Point and turns raw data into actionable information for the user.

WSN Deployment Strategies

There are two deployment strategies mentioned for Wireless Sensor Networks:

Non-Deterministic Deployment

Definition: Non-Deterministic Deployment in Wireless Sensor Networks involves distributing sensors in inaccessible or challenging terrains where precise placement is not feasible. 

This approach is characterized by random scattering of sensors over a targeted area, often deployed from an airborne vehicle or other means, without following a specific pattern. It is ideal for environments where manual placement is impractical due to terrain or scale.

Example: Consider researchers studying wildlife in a dense tropical rainforest. The challenging terrain makes manual sensor placement impractical. They employ a drone to scatter sensors across the forest canopy to overcome this randomly. These sensors are used to monitor environmental conditions and track animal movements. The random scattering method ensures comprehensive area coverage, compensating for the lack of precise sensor placement.

Deterministic Deployment

Definition: Deterministic Deployment in Wireless Sensor Networks involves strategically and precisely placing sensors in controlled environments. 

This strategy is applied in settings where the conditions allow for careful planning and execution of sensor placement, such as in industrial, urban, or indoor environments. The careful positioning of each sensor is crucial for the specific data collection requirements of the application.

Example: In a smart manufacturing facility, sensors are meticulously placed to monitor machinery performance, environmental conditions, and workflow processes. Each sensor is strategically located to maximize data collection efficiency for predictive maintenance and energy management applications. This deliberate placement facilitates detailed, targeted data collection, thereby enhancing the operational efficiency and effectiveness of the facility.

Deterministic and Non-Deterministic Deployment Strategies

Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks

Internet of Things (IoT)

    • Application: In IoT, WSNs interconnect various devices, allowing them to communicate and exchange data, enhancing automation and efficiency.
    • Example: In a smart home, sensors control lighting, heating, and security systems. For instance, motion sensors can automatically adjust lights and temperature as per the occupants' presence, while security sensors can detect unusual activities and alert homeowners.

Surveillance and Monitoring for Security, Threat Detection

    • Application: WSNs are employed for surveillance to detect and alert against potential security threats in civilian and military areas.
    • Example: In a border security scenario, sensors can be deployed to detect unauthorized entry or movements. These sensors can detect motion, sound, or thermal changes, alerting security personnel to potential intrusions.

Environmental Temperature, Humidity, and Air Pressure

    • Application: Sensors are used for monitoring environmental conditions like temperature, humidity, and air pressure, which are crucial for climate studies and weather forecasting.
    • Example: Meteorological stations use wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to collect data on temperature, humidity, and air pressure in various areas. This aids in precise weather prediction and accurate climate change research.

Noise Level of the Surrounding

    • Application: WSNs measure ambient noise levels in urban or industrial areas, aiding in noise pollution management.
    • Example: In urban areas, sensors placed at various locations continuously monitor noise levels. This enables authorities to identify areas with excessive noise pollution and enforce noise control regulations.

Medical Applications like Patient Monitoring

    • Application: In healthcare, WSNs are used for remote patient monitoring, tracking vital signs and providing real-time data to healthcare providers.
    • Example: In a hospital, patients with chronic conditions are monitored using wearable sensors that track heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen levels, allowing doctors to monitor patients' health status remotely.


    • Application: WSNs assist in precision agriculture by monitoring soil moisture, crop growth, and environmental conditions, optimizing resource use and crop yield.
    • Example: In a farm, sensors monitor soil moisture and environmental conditions, optimizing irrigation and fertilization to increase crop yield and resource efficiency.

Landslide Detection

    • Application: Sensors are used in landslide-prone areas to detect movements or changes in the earth that may indicate a potential landslide.
    • Example: In mountainous regions, sensors placed in the ground can detect small vibrations or soil movements, providing early warnings of potential landslides. This, in turn, enables timely evacuations and minimizes disaster risks.

Challenges of WSN

  • Limited Power and Energy: WSNs primarily rely on battery-powered sensors with finite energy resources. This limitation poses a challenge in sustaining network functionality over extended periods without frequent battery replacements.
  • Limited Processing and Storage Capabilities: The sensor nodes in WSNs are often small and have restricted processing power and storage capacity. This constraint hinders the ability to execute complex computational tasks or store substantial data volumes.
  • Heterogeneity: WSNs typically comprise various types of sensors and nodes, each with different capabilities. Ensuring cohesive and efficient network operation despite this diversity is a significant challenge.
  • Security: WSNs are susceptible to multiple security threats, including eavesdropping, jamming, and spoofing. Maintaining the security of the network and the data it handles is a critical concern.
  • Scalability: The need for WSNs to support many sensor nodes and manage large data volumes presents a challenge in ensuring scalable network growth.
  • Interference: In environments with high wireless activity, WSNs face the challenge of maintaining reliable communication among sensor nodes due to interference from other devices.
  • Reliability: Given their use in crucial applications like environmental monitoring or industrial process control, ensuring consistent and accurate functioning of WSNs under all conditions is essential.

Advantages of WSN

  • Low Cost: WSNs comprise small, low-cost sensors, making them an economical option for various applications. Their affordability is a key advantage, especially for large-scale deployments.
  • Wireless Communication: The absence of wired connections in WSNs simplifies installation and reduces costs associated with wiring. Wireless communication offers flexibility in deployment and the ability to reconfigure the network as needed quickly.
  • Energy Efficiency: WSNs employ low-power devices and energy-efficient protocols, extending their operational lifespan and reducing the frequency of battery replacements or recharging. This energy efficiency is crucial for long-term, uninterrupted monitoring and data collection.

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About the Author
Anshuman Singh
Senior Executive - Content

Anshuman Singh is an accomplished content writer with over three years of experience specializing in cybersecurity, cloud computing, networking, and software testing. Known for his clear, concise, and informative wr... Read Full Bio