What is Social Accounting and What is Its Need?

What is Social Accounting and What is Its Need?

5 mins readComment
Jaya Sharma
Assistant Manager - Content
Updated on Apr 15, 2024 18:10 IST

Social accounting/ social responsibility accounting /sustainability accounting is a way for companies to measure and report on their performance in areas that go beyond just making money. Social responsibility accounting is related to showing how a company’s operations impact society, the environment, and the economy. It helps a company explain its contribution or costs to society.

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Understanding Social Accounting With an Example

Social Responsibility accounting is related to Corporate Social Responsibility. To understand it easily, let us consider an example to understand social accounting:

Suppose there is a popular coffee shop chain that not only sells coffee but also focuses on social responsibility accounting to show how it is contributing positively to the world. Let us understand how this is done.

  1. Environmental Impact: The coffee shop starts by reporting how much waste they produce each year and what they are doing to reduce it. For instance, they might start using biodegradable cups and recycle more of their waste. They calculate and share how much plastic waste they have reduced by switching to biodegradable materials.
  2. Community Engagement: The company also reports on its involvement in local communities. Let’s say they begin a program to support local schools by donating a percentage of their profits. They report on how much money they have donated and what the schools have been able to do with that money, like buying new books or improving their playgrounds.
  3. Employee Welfare: This coffee shop might also include information about how they treat their employees, such as providing above-minimum wages, health benefits, or professional training programs. They could showcase stories of employees who have advanced in their careers because of these opportunities.
  4. Ethical Sourcing: The coffee chain could report on its efforts to source its coffee beans ethically, ensuring fair trade practices. They might share details about the origins of their coffee beans and the fair prices they pay to farmers, which help improve living conditions in those farming communities.

By doing social accounting, the shop builds trust and a positive image among its customers. Customers who have empathy towards the environment might choose this coffee shop over other coffee shops because they feel good about supporting a business that is committed to positive social impacts. This can attract more customers and in turn, increase the company's profitability in the long run.

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Advantages of Social Responsibility Accounting

Social accounting is an important practice that helps the company, its customers as well as the environment in the following ways:

  • Social accounting helps in building a positive public image. By transparently reporting on their social and environmental, companies can gain trust among consumers.
  • By addressing the concerns and values of stakeholders, companies can foster stronger relationships and partnerships. This leads to more loyal customers and satisfaction among these groups.
  • Companies that practice social accounting often differentiate themselves in the market. They may attract customers who prefer to buy from socially responsible businesses. This gives them an edge over competitors who do not engage in similar practices.
  • Social accounting involves identifying and addressing social and environmental risks that might affect the company’s operations and reputation. This approach can help prevent issues that might lead to financial losses or legal problems.
  • Investors are increasingly considering social and environmental factors as part of their investment decisions. Companies that demonstrate responsibility and transparency through social accounting are more likely to attract investment from socially conscious investors.
  • By focusing on areas such as waste reduction, energy efficiency, and sustainable sourcing, companies can find ways to reduce costs. This can also lead to innovations that improve overall operational efficiency.
  • Social accounting can help companies stay ahead of regulatory trends and requirements regarding sustainability and social responsibility. This can make it easier for companies to adapt to new laws and regulations.
  • Companies can ensure their long-term success through this. Sustainable practices often lead to sustainable business models, securing the company’s future in a changing world.

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Limitations of Social Accounting

Social accounting does come with the following limitations:

  • Unlike financial accounting, social responsibility accounting lacks universally accepted standards. This can make it difficult to compare social and environmental performance between companies.
  • Implementing social accounting practices can be costly. Gathering data, conducting audits, and preparing reports require resources, which might be challenging for smaller businesses with limited budgets.
  • Measuring social and environmental impacts of business activities is not simple. Impacts can be indirect, long-term, and hard to quantify.This makes it challenging to accurately assess and report.
  • Companies might exaggerate their environmental or social efforts in order to appear more responsible than they actually are. This will mislead stakeholders and undermine the credibility of social responsibility accounting.
  • Social accounts do not always undergo such rigorous verification. This can make it difficult for stakeholders to trust the accuracy and completeness of the reports.

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Social responsibility is a part of our business ethics. This makes it important to learn why and how social responsibility is necessary to the business and its customers. It is also important to understand its impact on the society and environment.


How is social accounting reported?

Social accounting is typically reported through sustainability reports or social responsibility reports that organizations publish annually. These reports can be standalone documents or integrated into the annual financial report.

Who uses social accounting reports?

A variety of stakeholders use these reports, including investors, customers, employees, regulators, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). These reports help stakeholders understand the company’s commitment to social and environmental issues and make informed decisions regarding their relationship with the company.

What are the challenges of social accounting?

Challenges include the lack of standardized measurement techniques, the potential for subjective interpretations of data, the cost of collecting and analyzing data, and the difficulty in quantifying some types of social and environmental impact.

Can social accounting impact a company’s financial performance?

Yes, effective social accounting can positively impact a company’s financial performance. By demonstrating responsibility and sustainability, companies can enhance their reputations, foster loyalty among customers and employees, and potentially attract investors who are concerned with ethical and sustainable practices.

How can a company start implementing social accounting practices?

Companies can start by identifying the key areas of social and environmental impact relevant to their operations and stakeholders. Then, they can choose appropriate frameworks or standards to guide their reporting, collect data, and publish their findings in an accessible format for stakeholders.

About the Author
Jaya Sharma
Assistant Manager - Content

Jaya is a writer with an experience of over 5 years in content creation and marketing. Her writing style is versatile since she likes to write as per the requirement of the domain. She has worked on Technology, Fina... Read Full Bio