The Evolution of Chatbots: From ELIZA to ChatGPT

The Evolution of Chatbots: From ELIZA to ChatGPT

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Updated on Jul 18, 2023 11:42 IST

Chatbots have undergone a remarkable evolution over the years. Initially, they were simple programs that could only understand and respond to basic commands. However, with the advancement in natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML) algorithms, chatbots have become more sophisticated and capable of handling complex conversations.
Let’s understand their journey from Eliza to ChatGPT and other related concepts.


Needless to say, AI has changed people’s perception of modern world technology. Now people can communicate with machines and expect a human-like conversation in return. Surprisingly, the evolution of chatbots has changed our view of looking at technology or machines. Now, ChatGPT can support building a website or app by giving the right instructions to the user.

Not just for talking or having a conversation, the human-like text and instructions make this technology appealing to others. 

Now let’s talk about the chatbots that changed people’s perception of artificial intelligence. Here is the list of topics that will be covered in this blog.

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What is a Chatbot?

Chatbot is a computer program that generates human-like text, leading to a two-way conversation between the human user and the chatbot. Artificial intelligence and natural language processing are the tools that are used by chatbots to mimic human-like conversation or give the desired response to the user. The chatbot aims to simulate human-like text to the user as if they are talking to a human.

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What is the Primary Use of Chatbots?

  • The use of chatbots ensures the 24/7 availability of customer services to clients and business customers.  
  • The use of chatbots extends to businesses and healthcare to help patients 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Due to the chatbots, a business owner can put more manpower into complex and knotty tasks rather than repetitive ones.  
  • Answering FAQs, reviews, emails, chat and order tracking can be answered or managed by chatbots that make customer services more flexible and reliable. 
  • Quick response to customer queries strengthens the client and company relationship. 

How can Chatbots Help Humans?

  • Chatbots help in business to improve customer service,
  • One can change the setting of their phone by instructing the chatbot available on their phone.
  • For setting reminders and asking for things we cannot find on our phones. 
  • Highly advanced chatbots support the treatment of people going through physiological issues. 
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Evolution of Chatbots: from Eliza to ChatGPT

Let’s move forward to comprehend the evolution of Chatbots. 

1. Eliza 1964-1966

The life of a chatbot began with the creation of Eliza. Eliza was the first chatbot in history, developed by Joseph Weisenbaum from 1964 to 1966. Joseph Weisenbaum was a professor at MIT University. Eliza was developed in a way that generates a human-like conversation for which it uses pattern-matching techniques.

Since Eliza was the first Artificial Intelligence Chatbot, the creator of Eliza, Joseph Weisenbaum, thinks it will help the patient deal with the psychological problem. Certainly, it will help them recover soon, along with the treatment. On the contrary, according to some individuals, Eliza could not speak with real understanding. 

2. Parry 1972

Parry is considered the upgraded version of Eliza. It was created by the psychiatrist Keneth Colby in 1972 at Stanford University. It could imitate a patient with schizophrenia (a psychological condition consisting of the symptoms like delusions, hallucinations, disorganised etc). 

This chatbot was externalized with a conversational strategy with people struggling with such psychological situations. Parry is regarded as the “Eliza with attitude”. 

‌3. Jabberwacky – 1988

Jabberwacky was created by Rollo Carpenter a British programmer. The primary goal of Jabberwacky was to mimic human chat in an amusing, humorous and interesting manner. It was well known for delivering the text witty and hilariously. 

Jabberwacky also uses the pattern-matching technique to communicate with humans. 

4. A. L. I. C. E 1995

Eliza was the first chatterbot that inspired programmers to build other chatbots with more perfections and features.

A. L. I. C. E is the finest example of chatbots which won the Loebner prize in the year 2000,2001, and 2004. 

Alicebot is open source which one can access from the ALICE AI foundation on Google code and from the Richard Wallace GitHub account. 

 A. L. I. C. E stands for Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer entity, also known as Alicebot. A. L. I. C. E was created by Richard Wallace and released on 23 November 1995.

On the concept of A. L. I. C. E, an Academy Award-winning movie,” Her”, was released in 2013 and was based on the story where a human falling in love with a bot. 

‌5. SmarterChild – 2001

Like any other chatbot, the smarter child was also based on natural language processing. It is a smart artificial intelligence which was developed by ActiveBuddy Inc. in the year 2001. 

SmarterChild is the best-known AI bot that generates human-like amusing conversations and the information available online. One can find this AI tool on Microsoft Messenger and AOI IM. 

‌6. Siri 2010

Siri, released in February 2010, is part of apple inc., a virtual assistant that is part of Apple products like IOS, iPadOS, watchOS, audioOS, macOS, and tvOS operating systems. It is an intelligent personal assistant that makes a recommendation and performs actions based on the user’s instructions. Note that these instructions can be in text, image or voice format. Siri adapts the user’s searches, preferences, and choices and then recommends the same results. It can assist individuals by controlling their phones and setting reminders for them. 

‌7. Google Assistant 

Google Assistant was developed by Google in the year 2016 on 18 May. It is available on mobile phones and home automation devices. By using it one can engage in a two-way conversation. 

 One can give instructions to the Google Assistant in text or voice format. Even a user can ask google assistant to set reminder alarms and change system settings. The parent company of google assistant, Google, has announced that soon google assistant will be able to recognize things and objects and will be able to help in buying products and sending money. 

8. ChatGPT‌

ChatGPT is the most advanced AI chatbot that has mainly impacted the business sectors as it can communicate with the customers or clients of a company by generating human-like text. From answering the FAQs of customers to generating emails and chatting with them, it has changed the customer support system of every company. ChatGPT was created and released by openAI on 30 November 2022. ChatGPT helps generate customised customer responses based on the text, their profile and purchasing history.

The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language Processing in Chatbots

Being concerned with Artificial Intelligence (AI) in chatbots, the machine learning algorithm is an AI technique used to train the chatbots to recognize and respond to humans in a way that mimics human conversation.

Natural language processing is an application that consists of many computational techniques to analyse the natural human language and speech.NLP allows the chatbots to recognize the purpose behind the human text and generate an appropriate response in return. Chatbots learn from previous interactions using a machine learning algorithm and improve their reactions. The natural language process is the backbone of chatbots that allows the chatbots to extract information from the user’s input and simulate human conversation. 

Due to the amazing capability of natural language processing, chatbots can understand half-done sentences and still generate to-the-point responses.

What are the Benefits of Using Chatbots?

Chatbots have vastly impacted the day-to-day lives of companies and individuals. Its impact can be seen in the customer support department and in those struggling with mental health problems. Let’s move ahead to clearly understand the benefits of using chatbots.

Benefits of the Chatbot for Businesses

Instant Response to the Customers 

As a customer, they expect their queries and problems to get resolved soon. The one running the company must add this to their vision. The company will only stay in the market if its customers are happy with the services provided by them. Chatbots’ prompt and rapid responsiveness to customers makes them a preferable choice for business owners. 

24/7 Responsiveness and Availability 

Well, it is needless to say that being a customer, we anticipate from a company that it will settle our issues in less time swiftly. The chatbots are a blessing that makes customers delighted with their 24/7 availability.

Emails in a Personalised Way 

Chatbots also help generate personalised emails, as they analyse the data of the customer’s profile, reviews and comments and use that data to send them emails related to similar products or their instructions for usage. 

Monitor Customers’ Purchasing History and Data 

Chatbot reduces the manpower of a company by doing repetitive tasks like answering their reviews, comments and all. By analyzing the customer’s views on a purchase chatbot predict whether a customer is happy with the product or not and where they need to make changes to the product. 

To Fulfill Customers’ Requirements 

Happy and cheerful customers portray the success of a business or company. Using chatbots, one can fulfil the customer’s requirements on time in a human-like manner. 

Benefits of Chatbot for Personal Use

Ease the Task 

Due to the use of chatbots, tasks like scheduling appointments, meetings, ordering, and setting reminders have become effortless for users. 

Provide Personalized Experience 

Using the data of users’ past interactions and searches, chatbots generate personalised recommendations for them. For example, google assistant uses the user’s location to recommend nearby restaurants. 

Can be Used for Enjoyment 

Chatbots are not only used to ease tiresome task but also helps entertain you. One can use a chatbot for games, quizzes and storytelling. 

Provide Emotional Support 

Those struggling with depression, anxiety and loneliness can talk to chatbots like friends. Due to natural language processing, chatbots can mimic human conversation, which helps people struggling with loneliness. 

Plan Your Trip

Chatbots can help you plan your trip and book hotels per your budget or preferences. It also provides information related to local events or attractions. 

Helps in Time Management 

With the assistance of chatbots, one can manage his or her time effectively. It assists in tracking the progress too. It also helps in making your timetable for work or study.

Pros and Cons of Using Chatbots for Customer Service


Make a Strategy to Upgrade the Business

A business marketing team analyses the market and customer views to acquire information about a specific company product. In the same way, chatbots help in analysing the customer’s side towards the company’s product or services. 


Chatbots can easily answer customers’ queries at an extensive level, and businesses that have a high volume of customer requests can take advantage of the chatbot’s scalability. 


By handling a high volume of customer needs and queries, chatbots have reduced the labour cost of companies. 

Multilingual Assistance

Chatbot’s feature of supporting multiple languages has increased the number of customers in the company. Now, business owners can provide their customer services to people who speak different languages. 

Good at Collecting Data 

By interacting with the customers, chatbots collect data and identify trends that help businesses to improve customer experience. 


Limited Intelligence 

In some specific scenarios, it is possible that due to a lack of emotional intelligence, a chatbot may not be able to handle the customer query, leading to a customer being unhappy with the services. 

Unreliable in Complex Situations 

Complicated Situations which require deep knowledge of certain things, which may not be possible to handle by the chatbots, can lead to customer dissatisfaction. 

Technically Risky 

Chatbots are technically risky as they can misinterpret the customer’s query and can generate irrelevant responses to the customer. This can make the customer unhappy with the company. 


Implementing a chatbot for customer services requires a significant amount of initial investment. Additionally, one has to train and improve the chatbot over time to enhance customer support.


Chatbots depend on technology, and a small breakdown can lead to interrupted customer services. 

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How Chatbots are Changing the Landscape of Healthcare?

Enhanced Monitoring 

The use of chatbots in healthcare has enhanced the monitoring of patients; chatbots can easily identify symptoms and inform the authorities to interrupt the matter. predicts that by 2030, the global healthcare chatbot market will be $345.3 million.

Improved Patient Treatment

Chatbots help patients remember important dates and medicines. Chatbots frequently ask questions from patients concerning their health, which keeps the patient and healthcare provider aware of their health condition. 

Easy to Maintain Patient Data 

With each passing day, a chatbot is evolving and helping healthcare providers manage patient data efficiently and smartly.

Provide Mental Support 

According to the WHO report, 450 million people worldwide suffer from mental illness. Patients struggling with mental issues and who don’t have any medical facility nearby can use chatbots. Chatbots can assist people in counselling and can provide emotional support to them. Woebots, Moodkit, Wysa and Moodnotes are some popular mental health chatbots.


Because of the 24/7 availability of chatbots, it is easily accessible by patients; one can use them remotely and resolve their queries. 

Thanks to automation and AI now, chatbots are helping millions of people struggling with loneliness. Chatbots are good at entertaining, assisting and advising. The healthcare sector has changed due to the extensive use of chatbots that help manage data. Babylon Health, OneRemision, and Youper are some renowned health chatbots. 

Integration of chatbots with augmented reality, voice assistants and high personalization are the future trends we can expect in chatbots. A new report by grand view research shows that by 2030 the global intelligent virtual assistant market size is anticipated to reach USD 14.10 billion.

 Additionally, a survey conducted by Accenture revealed that 83% of consumers are ready to give their personal data to get a more personalized experience with the chatbots.

Wrapping up 

Chatbots have entirely changed the technological era by providing so many benefits to the user. Chatbots are like a life saviour for those suffering from staying alone at home or going through any psychological situation. Also, they provide 24/7 support to customers during off-business hours too. 

Quick response from the company and rapid solution to every problem makes customer-company engagement robust and stable. In a nutshell, chatbots have helped businesses to enhance their capabilities and also helped people by generating quick responses to their problems and queries. 

Contributed By: Srashti Soni


What was the first chatbot and when it was created?

Eliza was the first chatbot created by Joseph Weisenbaum from 1964 to 1966.

What is smarterChild?

SmarterChild is a chatbot that uses natural language processing, developed by ActiveBuddy inc in the year 2001.

Who created Jabberwacky?

Jabberwacky was created by Rollo carpenter a British programmer.

How ChatGPT is helping in business?

ChatGPT is the most advanced AI chatbot that has primarily impacted the business sectors as it can communicate with the customers or clients of a company by generating human-like text.

What was the primary goal of the parry chatbot?

According to psychiatrist Keneth Colby, the primary goal behind creating parry was to communicate with the people struggling with psychological situations and assist the treatment.

What types of questions can chatbots answer?

Chatbots can answer general questions like how are you? What's your name? Etc, besides this advanced chatbot ChatGPT can answer FAQs, and reviews of the customers too.

Which technique is used in all AI chatbots?

Natural language processing is the technique used by AI chatbots to understand and generate text.

What is the most advanced and powerful AI chatbot till now?

Till now the recently released ChatGPt is the most advanced and powerful AI chatbot.

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