CUET PG Syllabus 2024: Download Subject-wise Syllabus PDF

Central University Entrance Test Postgraduate 2024 ( CUET-PG )

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Exam On: 11 Mar '24 - 28 Mar '24

This exam is conducted for courses given below:
Manisha Kumari

Manisha KumariAssociate Senior Executive

Updated on Sep 21, 2023 11:03 IST

CUET PG 2024 syllabus for the domain-specific subjects will be released by the National Testing Agency along with the information brochure. Candidates are recommended to go through the CUET (CUCET) syllabus for their particular course thoroughly in order to prepare well for the entrance exam. 

CUET PG 2024 Syllabus consist of all the important subjects and topics which are considered to be important for the CUET PG 2024 exam point of view. The syllabus has been framed by the examination conducting authority for the UG passout students to test their depth of knowledge in their particular domain in which they have taken the examination. 

CUET PG 2024 is designed according to what students has studied in the particular subject's under graduate course.

CUET PG 2024 is scheduled to be held between March 11, 2024 to March 28, 2024 for admissions to various PG courses in the participating universities across the nation. CUET PG syllabus for the academic session 2024-25 is expected to be the same as of previous years. Candidates can go through the same to get a brief idea of the topics that will be covered in the Common Entrance Test.

Also Read: CUET PG 2024 Exam Dates Announced by NTA; Check Complete Information Here

The CUET PG (CUCET) syllabus 2024 will be the same as of graduation level and candidates can expect some questions of higher analytical and practical approach. Till 2021, the CUET exam was known as the Central Universities Common Entrance Test or CUCET.

Q:   Who sets the CUET PG 2024 syllabus?


Common University Entrance Test (CUET) will be introduced for admission into UG/ PG programmes in Central and participating Universities for academic session 2024-25. The Common University Entrance Test (CUET) will
provide a common platform and equal opportunities to candidates across the country, especially those from NorthEast and from rural and other remote areas and help to establish better connect with the Universities. 

The CUET PG 2024 examination will be conducted by the examination authority i.e., NTA (National Testing Agency) in the various CUET PG examination centres across the nation and also to short listed foreign countries. The Syllabus for the master's courses for which the examination will be conducted is set by the exam conducting authority, which is National Testing Agency here. The subject experts after taking all the probable suggestions from all the participating universities, will set the syllabus for the master's degree programmes on the basis of what students have studied in their under graduate courses.

Q:   Where can I get the CUET PG 2024 syllabus?


CUET PG 2024 Examination is expected to be scheduled in the month of June 2024. Now that there is ample time for the CUET PG 2024 aspirants to preapare for the examination, candidates can go through the detailed CUET PG 2024 syllabus in order to ace the examination.

As, NTA has not released the CUET PG 2024 syllabus, therefore aspirants are left with the option of going through the CUET PG 2023 syllabus. It is highly expected that CUET PG syllabus doesn't change year to year, so candidates are suggested to either go to the CUET 2023 official website and search for CUET PG syllabus there.

For better ease in accessing the CUET PG 2023 syllabus, candidates can check the CUET PG 2024 (Expected) syllabus stream wise and then subject wise here on this page for free. Candidates can also refer to the CUET Samarth website to check and download the CUET 2024 website for the entire gamut of subjects and syllabus.


Q:   How many subjects can be opted in CUET PG while filling the application form?


CUET PG 2024 examination is expected to be scheduled in the month of June, 2024. Aspirants preaparing for the CUET PG exam will be able to fill the online application form in the month March 2024. While filling up the CUET PG online application form, test taker can select only one subject in one slot of the examintion day. However, from the previous year academic year, they were able to choose a maximum of 20 test paper codes in all.

Before choosing the multiple subjects for the examination, candidates are advised to check the minimal education eligibility criteria for the particular course candidate has applied for. Also check the university specific subject criteria for the subject a candidate wants to appear for.

CUET PG 2024 Exam Structure

The following table brings the structure of the expected CUET PG 2024 question paper.



Number of Questions


Language Comprehension/Verbal Ability, General Test (GK, QA, Analytical Skills)



Domain knowledge


Candidates must note that the Language Comprehension/Verbal Ability section is compulsory. The General Test also has to be taken by candidates opting for all test papers except Education (PGQP01).

Also Read: CUET PG 2023 Shift Timings: Reporting Time & Exam Duration 

CUET PG 2024 Detailed Exam Structure (Expected)

Below is the table mentioned for the detailed CUET PG 2024 examination structure (structure) for all the subjects for which the examination will be conducted:

Pattern Exam Pattern Examination Subjects
1 No. of questions 100 (MCQs) divided into two parts:
Part A: 25 Questions consisting of Hindi/English Language
Comprehension/Verbal Ability Part
Part B: 75 Domain Knowledge Questions comprising of Teaching
Aptitude, Social Sciences, Mathematics & Sciences.


BEd, BEd-MEd Integrated, BEd (HI),B Ed (ID),B Ed (VI), Lifelong Learning & Extension etc.

2 (a) No. of questions 100 (MCQs) divided into two parts:
Part A: 25 Questions consisting of Hindi/English Language
Comprehension/ Verbal Ability, General Awareness, Mathematical/Quantitative Ability and Analytical Skills.
Part B: 75 Domain Knowledge questions


Agri-Business Management, Applied Geography, Geoinformatics and Geographic Information Systems, Applied Geography, Geoinformatics and Geographic Information Systems, BEd Languages, BEd Science, BEd Mathematics, Commerce,Business Finance, Accounting & Taxation, Economic Administration and Financial Management etc, Disaster Studies, Economics,Financial Economics,Business Economics,Rural Economics etc, Library and Information Science, LLM, MEd, MA Education, Mass commumnication and Journalism, Physical Education, Public Health, Sports, Yoga, Hospital Management.


Agricultural Science- Agricultural Economics; Agronomy; Entomology; Agricultural Extension & Communication; Genetics & Plant Breeding; Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Plant Physiology; Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry,Agriculture Technology (Informatics), Agro forestry, Microbiology/Applied Microbiology, Architecture and Planning,Sustainable Architecture,Architecture and Design,Urban & Regional Planning, Architecture and Planning,Sustainable Architecture,Architecture and Design,Urban & Regional Planning, Biochemistry,Anatomy,Pharmacology,Bio Science, Bioinformatics,Food Science and Nutrition,Bio Science - Bioinformatics,
Botany,Bio Science, Chemistry,Chemical Sciences,Industrial Chemistry etc.
Computer Science, Information Technology, Computer Application, Big Data Analytics, Cyber Security, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, etc.
 Criminology Environmental Sciences/Studies,Ecology etc. Food Science and Technology, Nutrition,Food Processing and Management,Food Safety and
Quality Control etc. Forensic Science, Geology , Earth Sciences,Applied Geology Geophysics ,Horticulture,Forestry & Biodiversity,Seed Science & Technology,Plant Breeding,Agronomy,Genetics,Fruit Science, Floriculture, Vegetable Science etc. Life Science-Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Botany, Bioinformatics, Molecular Medicine, Zoology, Biomedical Engineering & Science,Virology and Immunology,
Optometry, Bio-Physics, Genetics, Health Science, Material Science
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Electronics, Medical Laboratory Technology, Medical Physics etc. MPT, Nanoscience/Integrative Biosciences, Pharmacy-Pharmacology,Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Science, Pharmaceutical Analysis etc. Physics, Computational and Integrative Sciences, Electronics, Applied Physics, Applied Physics + Electronics Engineering, Plant Biotechnology, Soil Science - Soil & Water Conservation, Statistics , Applied Mathematics, Statistics & Computing, Data Science and Applied Statistics etc, Zoology, Sericulture, Human Genetics,  Atmospheric Science, Animal Science(Poultry).


Ancient Indian History, Culture & Arch, Archaeology Heritage Management, Conservation Preservation and Heritage Management etc. Anthropology,  Applied Arts, Art and Aesthetics, Dance - Kathak/Bharat Natyam, Kuchipudi, Manipuri, Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Theatre Arts,
Folk and Performing Arts and Culture, Dramatics, Rabindra Nritya etc.
Dev. and Labour Studies, Fine Arts - Painting, Printmaking, Sculpture, Art History & Visual Studies, Mural etc. Geography, History and Archaeology, Ancient Indian History, Culture etc. History of Art, Archaeology Heritage Management etc. Home Science-Food & Nutrition,Nutrition and Health,Human Development & Childhood Studies, Fabric & Apparel Science etc. 

MTech/ Higher Sciences

Chemical Thermal & Polymer Engineering,Thermal Engineering, Civil, Structural & Transport Engg. Dairy Technology, Data Science, Artifical Intelligence, Cyber Security & Computer Science,Computer Sciences &
Engineering/Technology,Information Technology etc. Electronics, Communication and Information Engineering,Digital Communication,Micro
Electronics Engg ,VLSI Design,Microwave Electronics, Food Engineering and Technology, Mechanical Engineering,Manufacturing & Industrial,Tool Engineering etc. Nano Science/Nano Technology, Computer Aided Design & Manufacturing, Nanoelectronics/Material Sciencs Electrical, Power,Energy Engineering,Green Energy Technology etc. Water Engineering and Management,Agricultural Engineering etc.Textile Engineering.

2(b) No. of questions 100 (MCQs) divided into two parts:
Part A: 25 Questions consisting of Hindi/English Language
Comprehension/ Verbal Ability, General Awareness,
Mathematical/Quantitative Ability and Analytical Skills.
Part B: 75 language specific questions.


English,Comparative Literature,English & Cultural Studies,English, Modern European,English(Cafeteria)
Hindi,Hindi translation,Hindi and Comparative Literature,Hindi and Modern Indian Languages etc, Sanskrit, Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Linguistics and Language Technology, Linguistics & Tribal
Languages, Computational Linguistics, Arabic, Assamese,  Bengali, Bhutia
, Chinese, French, Garo, German, Gujarati, Hispanic, Japanese,  Kannada, Kashmiri, Khasi, Kokborok, Korean, Lepcha, Limbu, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Pali, Pashto, Persian,Prakrit, Prayojanmoolak Hindi(Patrakarita),  Punjabi, Russian, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu, Urdu Journalism, Indo-Tibetan, Santali, Italian.

2(c) No. of questions 100 (MCQs) divided into two parts:
Part A: 25 Questions consisting of Hindi/English Language
Comprehension/ Verbal Ability, General Awareness,
Mathematical/Quantitative Ability and Analytical Skills.
Part B: 75 Domain Knowledge questions in Sanskrit language.


Agama, Baudha Darshan / Buddhist Studies (Bilingual - Hindi/English), Dharma Shastra, Vastu, Paurohitya and Veda Dharma Vijnan, Dharmashastra (BHU), Hindu Studies (Bilingual - Hindi/English)),  Indian Knowledge System, Jain Darshan (BHU), Jyotish -Falit (BHU), Jyotish -Ganit (BHU), Krishna Yajurveda (BHU),  Nyaya Vaisheshika, Phalita and Siddantha Jyotisha, Puranetihas, Rigveda, Sahitya (BHU), Sahitya (Alankara and Kavya varga), Samveda, Shukla Yajurveda (BHU), Veda
Vedanta (BHU), Vedanta, Sarvadarshan, Mimansa,Nyaya etc.
Vyakaran (BHU), Vyakarana & Sabdabodha Systems


  •  Candidate can choose maximum of 20 test paper codes in all.
  •  Each question paper will have 100 MCQ Questions.
  •  Candidate has to choose language English or Hindi at the time of registration for the Part A. (Choose carefully)
  • In case of Shiksha Shastri and Shiksha Acharya the entire 100 questions of the question paper would be in Sanskrit language only.
  • Part B of the Question Paper will be in Sanskrit only for Acharya courses except Hindu Studies (English and Hindi) and Baudha Darshan/Buddhist Studies in English, Hindi and Sanskrit.
  • In case of language papers Part B of the Question Paper will be in the specified language. 

Q:   What is CUET PG examination structure?


The following table brings the structure of the expected CUET PG question paper.



Number of Questions


Language Comprehension/Verbal Ability, General Test (GK, QA, Analytical Skills)



Domain knowledge


Candidates must note that the Language Comprehension/Verbal Ability section is compulsory. The General Test also has to be taken by candidates opting for all test papers except Education (PGQP01).

Q:   Is it compulsory to attempt all the sections of the CUET PG 2024 question paper?


NTA, National Testing Agency is the examination conducting body of CUET PG examination. The exam syllabus, structure of the examination is set by the NTA for the ongoing academic session. 

On the basis of previous year's trends it is highly expected that NTA will set the CUET PG 2024 structure in such a way that the examination will have 2 sections to be attempted by the candidates. The section I of the examintion will be General Aptitude specific and Section II will be subject domain specific which depends upon the subject choose by the candidates while filling up the CUET PG 2024 examination. There is no complusion in attempting any question asked in the examination. However, it is being advised not to attempt the questions for which candiates are not sure about their answer. One mark will be deducted for every wrong answer marked by the candidates.

Q:   What are the streams for which CUET PG exam is being conducted?


Central University Entrance Test (Postgraduate) or CUET PG is an all-India level entrance exam which is being introduced for admission into PG programmes in Central and participating Universities for academic session 2024-25. The examination will be held for the graduates to get enrolled for various Masters degree like MSc,  MA,  MBA,  MTech etc.., in various central universities or particiapting universities under the CUET PG 2023 examination.

NTA, the examination conducting body has divided the exam subjects of CUET PG stream wise. Candidates can check out the streams below:

  1. Science Stream- Here all the subjects related to Science domain have been included and the syllabus for the examination has been prepared accordingly. Some MSc subjects of Science stream domain are- MSc in Zoology, Botany, Mathematics, Chemistry, Food Science, Bio chemistry, Physics etc.
  2. M.Tech- Here all the subjects which comes under Master degree of engeneering are included here. Some of the M.Tech subjects for which CUET PG 2023 examination is being conducted are Mechanical Eng, Food Eng and Technology, Electronics Communication and Informatics Eng, Civil Eng, Tansport Eng. etc.
  3. Acharya- Subjects which comes under Archarya stream are Siksha Shastri (B.Ed.), Shiksha Acharya (M.Ed.), Agama, Baudha Darshan/Buddhist Studies (Trilingual), Dharmashastra, Vastu & Paurohitya, etc.
  4. Humanitirs- Subjects which comes under Humanities stream are Ancient Indian History, Culture & Architecture, Political Science, History, Geography, Anthropology, Applied Arts, Art and Aesthetics, Dance, and etc., .
  5. Languages- Subjects which comes under Languages stream are English, Hindi, Sanskrit, Persian, Russian, German, and etc. 

CUET PG 2024 Syllabus: Science Subjects

Here is the expected CUET 2024 examination syllabus for the courses which comes under Science domain:

Plant Biotechnology Syllabus

Introduction, Cryo and organ genic differentiation, Types of culture: Seed, Embryo, Callus, Organs, Cell and Protoplast culture. Micro propagation Axillary bud proliferation, Meristem andshoot tip culture, cud culture, organogenesis, embryogenesis, advantages and disadvantages ofmicro propagation.
In vitro haploid production Androgenic methods: Anther culture, Microspore culture Ando genesis Significance and use of haploids, Ploidy level and chromosome doubling, diploidization, Gynogenic haploids, factors effecting gynogenesis, chromosome elimination techniques for production of haploids in cereals.
Protoplast Isolation and fusion Methods of protoplast isolation, Protoplast development, Somatic hybridization, identification and selection of hybrid cells, Cybrids, Potential of somatic
Hybridization limitations. Soma clonal variation Nomenclature, methods, applications basis and disadvantages
Plant Growth Promoting bacteria, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogenase, Hydrogenase, Nodulation, Biocontrol of pathogens, Growth promotion by free-living bacteria.

Agricultural Science (SCQP01)

1. Agronomy
2. Genetics & Plant Breeding
3. Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry 4. Plant Physiology
5. Horticulture
6. Entomology
7. Agricultural Economics
8. Mycology & Plant Pathology
9. Agricultural Engineering & Statistics
10. Agricultural Extension Education

Agro-forestry (SCQP02)

Importance of Agriculture/Forestry/Livestock in National Economy:
Principles of crop ecology and crop adaptation, climate shift and its ecological implications, Argo-ecological regionsin India.Geographical distribution of crop plants, Greenhouse effect, Climatic factors and their effect on plant processes and crop productivity, Role of GIS and GPS in agriculture. Major pests and diseases of rice, wheat, cotton, chickpea, sugarcane and their management. Important rural development programmed in India; organizational set up of agricultural research, education andextension in India; Elements of statistics.
Agricultural Soil fertility and fertilizer use:
Essential plant nutrients and their deficiency symptoms, concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, Indicators of soil fertility and productivity,

Sustainable land use systems:
Sustainable agriculture: parameters and indicators, Conservationagriculture, safe disposal of Agri-industrialwaste for crop production, Argo-forestry.
Layout and establishment of orchards:
Pruning and training; propagation, climatic requirementand cultivation of fruits like mango, banana, citrus, guava, grape, pineapple, papaya, apple, pear,peach and plum; cultivation of plantation crops like coconut and cashew nut and spices like blackpepper, coriander, turmeric, important physiological disorders;
importance, types, classification, ecosystem, biotic and abiotic components, ecological succession and climax, nursery and planting technique, social forestry, farm forestry, urban forestry, community forestry, forest management, silvicultural practices, forest mensuration, natural regeneration, man-made plantations, shifting cultivation, taungya, dendrology, hardwoods, softwoods, pulp woods, fuel woods, multipurpose tree species, wasteland management. Agroforestry -importance and land use systems, forest soils, classification and conservation, watershed management, forest genetics and biotechnology and tree improvement, tree seed technology, rangelands, wildlife - importance, abuse, depletion, management, major and minor forest products
including medicinal and aromatic plants, forest inventory, aerial photo interpretation and remote sensing, forest depletion and degradation- importance and impact on environment, global warming, role of forests and trees in climate mitigation, tree diseases, wood decay and discoloration, tree pests, integrated pest and disease management, biological and chemical wood preservation, forest conservation, Indian forest policies, Indian forest act, forest engineering, forest economics, joint forest management and tribology.

Microbiology (SCQP03)

• History and scope of microbiology
• Position of microorganisms in the living world
• Structure of a bacterial cell:
• Structure of bacteriophages
• Nitrogen Cycle
• General accounts of microbes in diverse environments
• Microbial growth curve
• Mechanisms of gene transfer
• Basic concepts of gene regulation
• Mutation in microbes
• Fermentative production
• N2 -fixation
• Bio fertilizers
• Microbial interactions
Cytology and Genetics
• Ultrastructure of plant an animal cell
• Cell cycle

Mendel's laws and cytoplasmic inheritance
• Interaction of genes
• Linkage and crossing over
• Sex determination in plants and animals
• Modern concept of gene structure
• Mutations and mutagens
• Proteins
• Enzymes
• Carbohydrates:
• Lipids
• Nucleic acids and Genetic code
• Water relations
• Cell Membrane
• Photosynthesis
• Respiration
• Hormones
• Genetic Engineering
Bio techniques
• Chromatography
• Electrophoresis

• Abiotic environment
• Biotic environment
• Adaptations
• Population ecology
• Community Ecology
• Ecosystem function
• Ecological succession
• Environmental pollution

Architecture and Planning (SCQP04)

Unit 1: Architecture, Planning and Design
Architectural Graphics; Visual composition in 2D and 3D; Computer application in Architecture and Planning; Anthropometrics; Organization of space; Circulation- horizontal and vertical; Space
Standards; Universal design; Building byelaws; Codes and standards; Principles of Art and Architecture; World History of Architecture: Egyptian, Greco-Roman classical period, Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque-Rococo, etc.; Recent trendsin Contemporary Architecture: Art nouveau, Art Deco, Eclecticism, International styles, Post Modernism, Deconstruction in architecture, etc.; Influence of Modern art and Design in Architecture; Indian vernacular and traditional Architecture, Oriental Architecture; Works of renowned national andinternational architects;
Unit 2: Construction, Planning Techniques and Management
Project management techniques e.g. PERT, CPM etc.; Estimation and Specification; Professional practice and ethics; Form and Structure; Principles and design of disaster resistant structures;
Temporary structures for rehabilitation. Building construction techniques, methods and details; Building systems and prefabrication of building elements; Principles of Modular Coordination; Construction planning and equipment; Building material characteristics and applications; Principles of strength of materials; Alternative building materials; Foundations; Design of structural elements with different materials; Elastic and Limit State design; Structural systems; Principles of Pre-stressing; High Rise and Long Span structures, gravity and lateral load resisting systems
Application of G.I.S and Remote Sensing techniques in urban and regional planning; Tools and techniques of Surveys – Physical, Topographical, Land use and Socio-economic Surveys; Urban Economics, Law of demand and supply of land and its use in planning; Graphic presentation of spatial data; Local self-governance, Panchayatiraj institutions; Planning Legislation and
implementation – Land Acquisition Act, PPP etc.; Decision support system and Land Information System; Urban geography and econometrics; Management of Infrastructure Projects; Demography and equity in planning;

Unit 3: Envioronmental and Infrastructure Planning
Natural and man-made ecosystem; Ecological principles; Environmental considerations in Planning and design; Environmental pollution- types, causes, controls and abatement strategies; Sustainable development, goals and strategies; Climate change and built environment; Climate responsive design Process and Principles of Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering; Road capacity and Travel demand forecasting; Traffic survey methods, Traffic flow Analysis; Traffic analyses and design considerations; Traffic and transport management and control in urban areas; Mass transportation planning; Intelligent Transportation Systems; Urban and Rural Infrastructure System Network.
Unit 4: Urban Design, Landscape and Conservation
Historical and modern examples of urban design; Elements of urban built environment – urbanform, spaces, structure, pattern, fabric, texture, grain etc.; Concepts and theories of urban design;
Principles, tools and techniques of urban design; Public spaces, character, spatial qualities and Sense of Place; Urban design interventions for sustainable development and transportation; Development controls – FAR, densities and building byelaws.; Urban renewal and conservation; heritage conservation; historical public spaces and gardens; Landscape design; Site planning.
Unit 5: Building Services and Sustainability
Solar architecture; Thermal, visual and acoustic comfort in built environments; Natural and Mechanical ventilation in buildings; Air-Conditioning systems; Sustainable building strategies;
Building Performance Simulation and Evaluation; Intelligent Buildings; Water supply; Sewerage and drainage systems; Sanitary fittings and fixtures; Plumbing systems; Principles of internal and external drainage system; Principles of electrification of buildings; Elevators and Escalators - standards and uses. Building Services and Utilities – Electrical, HVAC, Sanitary and Plumbing, Solid and Liquid Waste Management, (with special reference to energy efficiency, recycling and re-use), Overview of green Building Rating Systems
Unit 6: Infrastructure and Services
Firefighting Systems; Building Safety and Security systems; Building Management Systems; Water treatment; Water supply and distribution system; Water harvesting systems; Principles, Planning and Design of storm water drainage system; Sewage disposal methods; Methods of solid waste management - collection, transportation and disposal; Recycling and Reuse of solid waste; Landuse– transportation - urban form inter-relationships; Design of roads, intersections, grade separators and parking areas; Hierarchy of roads and level of service; Para-transits and other modes of transportation, Pedestrian and slow moving traffic planning.
Unit 7: Remote Sensing and GIS in Architecture
Introduction, development of remote sensing technology, advantages; Different platforms of remote sensing; EM spectrum, solar reflection and thermal emission remote sensing, Interaction of EM
radiation with atmosphere including atmospheric scattering, absorption and emission. Interaction mechanisms of EM radiation with ground, spectral response curves. Photographic techniques in
aerial and spaceborne remote sensing; Spectrozonal photography using various camera, film, filter combinations; Applications and limitations. Stereo aerial photography, principle of stereoscopy,
elements of photogrammetry. Principles of image interpretation, digital image processing. Multispectral scanners and imaging devices; Salient QuickBird, GeoEye sensors and their applications.
Image characteristics and interpretation of different geological landforms, structures and majorigneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock types; Remote sensing as a fore-runner in all
exploration programs.

Biochemistry (SCQP05)

Introduction to Biochemistry
Understanding of Biochemistry as a discipline. Fundamental properties of elements, their role in formation of biomolecules and in chemical reactions.Concepts of mole, mole fraction, molarity, etc.
Unique property of water as a universal solvent. Fundamentals of Adsorption, Viscosity, Distribution law, Osmotic pressure, etc. Fundamental laws relating to photochemistry.
Bioorganic Chemistry and Metabolites
Significance of organic reactions. Electrochemistry to conductance, voltaic, and electrolytic systems. Chemical bonding. Aliphatic and aromatic compounds and IUPAC nomenclature. Formation of polymers and their importance. Stereochemistry in determining conformations of biomolecules.
Cell Biology
Structure of cell and various cellular events. Function of various subcellular organelles. Cell theory and techniques for fractionation of sub-cellular organelles. Composition of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. Cell cycle, cell division and cell death mechanisms.

Biochemical Techniques
Chromatographic techniques and their application Centrifugation and chromatography in biological investigations. Principles of Electrophoresis, Spectrophotometry and ELISA and their applications.
Biomolecules present in living cells. Key contributions of scientists such as Hans Kreb, G. N. Ramachandran, Melvin Calvin, Louis Pasteur, Har Gobind Khorana, Watson etc.
Properties of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, cholesterol, DNA, RNA, glycoproteins and glycolipids. Process of fermentation and manufacture of Biodiesel. Amino acid and nucleotide sequences of proteins and DNA respectively.

Glycemic index, balanced diet, micronutrient deficiencies and the remedies, nutraceuticals and their importance, junk foods and their hazards. Need for specialized food for people with special needs - diabetes, pregnancy, inherited genetic disorders. Use of alternate crops – cereals and pulses and their importance. Cattle industry and its contribution to greenhouse gases. Merits and demerits of vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods.

Importance of lipids as storage molecules and as structural component of biomembranes. Importance of high energy compounds, electron transport chain, synthesis of ATP under aerobic and
anaerobic conditions. Role of TCA cycle in central carbon metabolism, importance of anaplerotic reactions and redox balance. Properties of metabolic enzymes of the host and pathogens
Metabolic engineering for the production of useful biomolecules.
Bioenergetics and Membrane Biology
Basic concepts of Bioenergetics, mechanisms of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation. Composition and structure of biomembranes, transport mechanisms across biological membranes. Concept and mechanism of ATP synthesis.

Human Physiology
Mechanism of signal transduction by steroid and polypeptide hormones . Process of gaseous exchange in tissues and lungs, respiratory adaption to high altitude. Difference between hemoglobin and myoglobin. Muscular dystrophies, the role of steroids in muscle building. Nitrogen metabolism.
Clinical Biochemistry
Constituents of urine, blood and their significance. Causation of diseases of liver, kidney, mechanism of Cancer. Trigycerides and lipoproteins and their relationship with various diseases. Role of enzymes in diagnosis of various diseases.
Contributions of Louis Pasteur, Edward Jenner and Robert Koch in microbiology and immunology. Discovery of antibiotics and their targets, drug/antibiotic resistance, preventive and therapeutic
approaches of infectious diseases. Microorganisms as model systems in genetics and biochemistry. Contribution of gut microbiome in human health. Basic concepts of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology.
Immune system including cells, organs and receptors. Structure and functions of different classes of immunoglobulins, the genetic basis of antibody diversityand the importance of humoral, cell-mediated and innate immune responses in combating pathogens. Different types of hypersensitivity, and the importance of conventional vs. recombinant vaccines. Importance of antigen-antibody interaction in disease diagnosis. Principles of tolerance, autoimmunity and the role of immunity in protection against pathogens.
Enzymes and their importance in biological reactions. Difference between a chemical catalyst and biocatalyst. Activation energy and its importance in biological reactions.

Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering
DNA as genetic material, DNA replication, transcription, DNA repair and translation. Coding and non-coding regions of eukaryotic genome. Exposure of E. coli lac operon, PCR, expression vectors and their importance in Biotechnology. Merits and Demerits of transgenic crops. Genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and their importance in human health

Bio-Informatics (SCQP06)

Unit 1: Mathematics and Statistical Foundation
Calculus: The concept of limit of a Functions, continuity, differentiability, successive differentiation, Liebnitz theorem, asymptotes, definite integrals, reduction formulae, order and degree of ordinary differential equations, linear differential equations with constant coefficient and Laplace transformations
Algebra: Mappings, groups, subgroups, matrices, elementary operations of matrices, inverse of matrices, application of matrices to system of linear equations, vector spaces, linear transformation and their matrix representations. Analysis Open set, closed set, limit, continuity, Taylor's theorem, Lagrange's mean theorem, Rolle's Theorem, sequences and series, convergence of series.
Probability Distribution: Basics of Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions and their application in biology. Random Variable; Discrete and Continuous Probability Distribution, Probability mass function, probability Density function, Mathematical Expectation. Geometry Plane, straight line, sphere, cone, cylinder, conicoids.

Unit 2: Role of Chemistry in Bioinformatics
Kinetic theory of gases, Atomic Structure, Periodic Properties, Chemical bonding, Distribution of electrons in organic compounds. Homegenous equilibria, chemical Kinetics, p and d block elements, Stereo Chemistry, Configurational Isomerism, Elements of symmetry, Chirality.
Colligative properties, thermodynamics, Chemistry of elements of first transition series, Coordination Compouds, Organometallic Compounds, Alicyclic Compounds Esters cont aining active methylene group, Aromatic Compounds, Nuclear Chemistry, Zero group elements, Phase Rule and Electrochemistry.

Unit 3: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Carbohydrates and lipids, their importance in cells. Proteins: Amino acids and peptides; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures; protein – protein interactions; sequence homology,
functional and evolutionary relationships of proteins. Nucleic acids: Bases, nucleotides, RNA and DNA. Different Structural from of DNA, denaturation and renaturation of DNA, protein-nucleic acid interactions.
Enzymes: Units of activity, coenzymes and metal cofactors, temperature and pH effects, MichaelisMenten kinetics, inhibitors and activators, active site and mechanism of enzyme action,
isoenzymes, allosteric enzymes, regulation by covalent modification. Organization of metabolic systems: enzyme chains, multienzyme complexes and multifunctional enzymes, regulatory enzumes and feedback control of metabolic pathways, energy charge
Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycogenolysis and pentose phosphate pathway; hormonal control. TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
B-oxidation and biosynthesis of fatty acids. Transamination and deamination of amino acids, ketogenic and glycogenic and glycogenic amino acids, urea cycle.Purine and pyrimidine

Unit 4: Microbiology and Immunology
Viruses: Morphology, Architechture, Nomenclature, Classification and symmetry, Structure of a typical plant (TMV), Animal (polio) and Bacterial (T4) Viruses; Bacteriophages (Lytic & lysogenic
cycles) Role of microorganisms in biogeochemical cycles of Nitrogen and Carbon. Biological nitrogen fixation with special reference to Rhizobium. Industrial application of microorganisms: Organic acids, alcohol, food processing, milk products with special reference to Lactobacillus, antibiotics with reference to Streptomyces, biopesticides.
Methods in Microbiology – staining, sterilization method culture media, pure culture methods, methods for population estimation, growth determination.
Immunology: Immunity, Immune system in Human: Active and Passive Immunity, Antigens, Antibodies, Classes of Immunoglobulins, Antigen – Antibody reaction, B-cells and T-cells and
their role in immunity to infection, Autoimmunity. Immunity to infectious agents; AIDS and other immunodeficiencies, Vaccines, Hybridoma Technology and Monoclonal antibodies, Gene Therapy.
Unit 5: Genetic Engineering, Gene Sequencing and RDT
DNA as genetic material, Structure and Biological importance of DNA; Types of RNA and their structure; Replication of DNA. Genetic code, Central Dogma, Transcription, Translation, RNA
editing, DNA repair. Introduction: Plasmids and bacteriophages: Cosmids, M13, Shuttle vectors and lamda of E. coli, Applications of genetic engineering in medicine, industry and agriculture.
Enzymes for RDT: polymerase, restriction endonucleases, ligases, Introduction of r-DNA into living cells – Transformation and Transfection, Identification of recombinants.
Techniques in Genetic Engineering : PCR, Gene Sequencing – Maxam Gilbert method & Sanger method, Electrophoresis, Southern and northern blotting techniques. Transgenic plants and animals, Gene therapy, Intellectual Property Rights, Bioethics.

Unit 6: Bio-Physics
Energetics of a living body, sources of heat limits to temperature ( qualitative treatment), heat dissipation to conservation, laws of thermodynamics. Nature of chemical bonds, intra and
intermolecular interaction in biological systems. Force field used in Molecular Dynamics Simulation.
Absorption spectroscopy- Beer-Lambert’s law, Colorimetry to Spectrophotometry( single and double beam spectrophotometer), primary biophysical events in photosynthesis. Spectroscopic techniques to find out molecular structure (quantitative techniques), general spectroscopy (UV, Visible, Fluorescence, Atomic absorption, IR to Raman spectra). Instrumental
techniques: Concept of chromatography, electrophoresis; spectrophotometry, UV-VIS, IR, NMR',- and spectroscopy.
Physical methods of imaging, intact biological structures (X-ray, CT-Scan, ECG, EEG, NMR)
and radioactive pollution- GM counter Structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. X-ray crystallography Physical methods for determining size and shape of macromolecules – diffusion to sedimentation, reverse osmosis, ultracentrifugation, Ramachandran Plot Analysis.

Unit 7: Fundamentals of Information Technology and Computer Programming
An overview of resolution in computers and communication. Applications software (Word processing, spreadsheets, database, financial, communicating etc.) Processors (microclips, CPU.,
Main memory, representation of data & programs, microcomputer system unit, future processing power), Input and output, storage, Interactivity, Multimedia
System Software, The use of online resources and the internet, Communications technology (hardware, channels & Networks), Software development (programming & languages). Introduction to programming in C++, C++ control structures (if, if/else, while, do/while, for, switch). Functions (definition and prototypes, storage classes, Scope rules, Recursion, inline functions,
references and reference parametrics, function overloading, function templates), Arrays (declaration, passing arrays to functions, sorting and searching arrays, multiple subscripted arrays.
Pointers (declaration & initialization, pointer operators, calling functions by reference, pointer expression and pointer arithmetic, pointers & arrays, arrays of pointers, function pointers),

Introduction to characters and string processing, classes(structures, class scope, access utility functions, constructors, destructors, use of data members and member functions).
Color models: CMY, HSV, RGB, Visualization techniques. Graphics display devices, Raster and Random scan devices, color CRT monitors, LCD and LED. Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic algorithm, Bayesian modeling, Monte Carlo Simulation Method, Markov Models and their application
Perl basic: Variables, Perl operations, A Program to store DNA sequence, Concatenating DNA fragment, Transcription: DNA to RNA, Subroutines, scoping and subroutines, command-line arguments and arrays passing data to subroutines, modules and libraries of subroutines, fixing bugs.
Unit 7: Basics of Bio-Informatics
What is Bioinformatics and its relation with molecular biology Examples of related tools, databases and software, Data generation; Generation of large scale molecular biology data. (Through Genome sequencing, Protein sequencing, Gel electrophoresis, NMR Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, andmicroarray).Applications of Bioinformatics. Biological Database and its Types, Introduction to data types and Source. Population and sample,Classification and Presentation of Data. Quality of data, private and public data sources.
General Introduction of Biological Databases; Nucleic acid databases, Protein databases (Primary,
Composite, and Secondary).

Specialized Genome databases:Structure databases Data storage and retrieval and Interoperability, Flat files, relational, object oriented databases andcontrolled vocabularies. File Format, Introduction to Metadata and search; Indices, Boolean, Fuzzy, Neighboring search.The challenges of data exchange and integration. Ontologies, interchange
languages and standardization efforts. Sequence Alignments and Visualization, Introduction to Sequences, alignments and Dynamic
Programming,Local alignment and Global alignment (algorithm and example), Pairwise alignmentand multiple sequence alignment. Methods for presenting large quantities of biological data:
sequence viewers, 3D structure viewers, Anatomical visualization. Gene Expression and Representation of patterns and relationship,General introduction to Gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, transcription factors binding sites. SNP, EST, STS.Introduction to Regular Expression, Hierarchies, and Graphical models (including Marcovchain and Bayes notes).Genetic variability and connections to clinical data.


Botany (SCQP07)

1. Phycology and Microbiology
2. Biomolecules and Cell Biology
3. Mycology and Phytopathology
4. Archegoniate
5. Anatomy and Angiosperms
6. Economic Botany
7. Genetics
8. Molecular Biology
9. Plant Ecology and Phytogeography
10.Plant Semantics
11.Reproductive Biology of Angiosperms
12.Plant Physiology
13.Plant Metabolism
14.Plant Biotechnology

Chemistry (SCQP08)

1. Gaseous State
Behavior of real gases: Deviations from ideal gas behavior, compressibility factor, and its variation with pressure for different gases. Causes of deviation from ideal behavior. van der Waals equation of state, its derivation and application in explaining real gas behaviour; van der Waals equation expressed in virial form, Boyle temperature. Isotherms of real gases and their comparison with van der Waals isotherms, continuity of states, critical state, critical and van der Waals constants, law of corresponding states. Kinetic molecular model of a gas: postulates and derivation of the kinetic gas equation; collision frequency; collision diameter; mean free path and viscosity of gases, including their temperature and pressure dependence, relation between mean free path and
coefficient of viscosity, calculation of σ from η; variation of viscosity with temperature and pressure. Maxwell distribution and its use in evaluating molecular velocities (average, root mean square and most probable) and average kinetic energy, law of equipartition of energy, degrees of freedom and molecular basis of heat capacities.
2. Liquid State
Structure and physical properties of liquids; vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity, and their dependence on temperature, Effect of addition of various solutes on surface
tension, cleansing action of detergents. Structure of water.
3. Ionic Equilibria
Strong, moderate and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, factors affecting degree of ionization, ionization constant and ionic product of water. Ionization of weak acids and bases, pH scale, common ion effect; dissociation constants of mono-, di- and tri-protic acids. Salt hydrolysis, hydrolysis constants, degree of hydrolysis and pH for different salts. Buffer solutions; Henderson equation, buffer capacity, buffer range, buffer action, applications of buffers in analytical chemistry, Solubility and solubility product. Brönsted-Lowry concept of acid-base reactions, solvated proton, relative strength of acids, types of acid-base reactions, levelling solvents, Lewis acid-base concept, Classification of Lewis acids, Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB) Application of
HSAB principle. Qualitative treatment of acid – base titration curves (calculation of pH at various stages). Theory of indicators; selection of indicators and their limitations. Multistage equilibria in polyelectrolytes.
4. Solid State
Nature of the solid state, law of constancy of interfacial angles, law of rational indices, Miller indices, elementary ideas of symmetry, symmetry elements and symmetry operations, qualitative idea of point and space groups, seven crystal systems and fourteen Bravais lattices; X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law, a simple account of rotating crystal method and powder pattern method. Analysis of powder diffraction patterns of NaCl, CsCl and KCl. Various types of defects in crystals, Glasses and liquid crystals.
5. Thermodynamics
Intensive and extensive variables; state and path functions; isolated, closed and open systems; zeroth law of thermodynamics. First law: Concept of heat, q, work, w, internal energy, U, and statement of first law; enthalpy, H, relation between heat capacities, calculations of q, w, U and H for reversible, irreversible and free expansion of gases (ideal and van der Waals) under isothermal and adiabatic conditions.
Thermochemistry: Heats of reactions: standard states; enthalpy of formation of molecules and ions and enthalpy of combustion and its applications; calculation of bond energy, bond
dissociation energy and resonance energy from thermochemical data, effect of temperature (Kirchhoff’s equations), pressure on enthalpy of reactions.
Second Law: Concept of entropy; thermodynamic scale of temperature, statement of the second law of thermodynamics; molecular and statistical interpretation of entropy. Calculation of
entropy change for reversible and irreversible processes.
Third law of thermodynamics: Third Law of thermodynamics, residual entropy, calculation of absolute entropy of molecules.
Free Energy Functions: Gibbs and Helmholtz energy; variation of S, G, A with T, V, P; Free energy change and spontaneity. Relation between Joule-Thomson coefficient and other thermodynamic
parameters; inversion temperature; Gibbs-Helmholtz equation; Maxwell relations; thermodynamic equation of state.
6. Partial molar quantities
Partial molar quantities, dependence of thermodynamic parameters on composition; GibbsDuhem equation, chemical potential of ideal mixtures, change in thermodynamic functions in mixing of ideal gases
7. Dilute solutions or Colligative Properties
Dilute solutions; lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s and Henry’s Laws and their applications. Excess thermodynamic functions. Thermodynamic derivation using
chemical potential to derive relations between the four colligative properties: [(i) relative lowering of vapour pressure, (ii) elevation of boiling point, (iii) Depression of freezing
point, (iv) osmotic pressure] and amount of solute. Applications in calculating molar masses of normal, dissociated and associated solutes in solution.
8. Molecular Spectroscopy & Photochemistry
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules and various types of spectra; BornOppenheimer approximation. Rotation spectroscopy: Selection rules, intensities of
spectral lines, determination of bond lengths of diatomic and linear triatomic molecules, isotopic substitution. Vibrational spectroscopy: Classical equation of vibration, computation of force constant, amplitude of diatomic molecular vibrations, anharmonicity, Morse potential, dissociation energies, fundamental frequencies,
overtones, hot bands, degrees of freedom for polyatomic molecules, modes of vibration, concept of group frequencies. Vibration-rotation spectroscopy: diatomic vibrating rotator,
P, Q, R branches.
Raman spectroscopy: Qualitative treatment of Rotational Raman effect; Effect of nuclear spin, Vibrational Raman spectra, Stokes and anti-Stokes lines; their intensity difference,
rule of mutual exclusion. Electronic spectroscopy: Franck-Condon principle, electronic transitions, singlet and triplet states, fluorescence and phosphorescence, dissociation and predissociation.

Photophysical and photochemical processes: laws of photochemistry, quantum yield. Jablonski diagrams: Franck-Condon principle, Law of photochemical equivalence, quantum efficiency, low and high quantum efficiency. kinetics of photochemical reactions (H2 + Br2⇌HBr, 2HI ⇌ H2 + I2), energy transfer in photochemical reactions (photosensitization and quenching), fluorescence, phosphorescence, chemiluminescence, Discussion of Electronic spectra and photochemistry (Lambert-Beer law and its applications).
9. Chemical Kinetics
Order and molecularity of a reaction, rate laws in terms of the advancement of a reaction, differential and integrated rate laws for first, second and fractional order reactions, pseudounimolecular reactions, determination of the order, kinetics of complex reactions (limited to first order): (i) Opposing reactions (ii) parallel reactions and (iii) consecutive
reactions and their differential rate equations (steady-state approximation in reaction mechanisms) (iv) chain reactions. Temperature dependence of reaction rates; Arrhenius
equation; activation energy. Collision theory of reaction rates, Lindemann mechanism, qualitative treatment of the theory of absolute reaction rates.
10. Catalysis
Types of catalyst, specificity and selectivity, mechanisms of catalyzed reactions at solid surfaces; effect of particle size and efficiency of nanoparticles as catalysts. Enzyme catalysis, MichaelisMenten mechanism, acid-base catalysis.
11. Surface chemistry
Physical adsorption, chemisorption, adsorption isotherms (Freundlich, Temkin, Derivation of Langumuir adsorption isotherms, surface area determination), BET theory of multilayer adsorption (no derivation), Adsorption in solution
12. Phase Equilibria
Concept of phases, components and degrees of freedom, derivation of Gibbs Phase Rule for nonreactive and reactive systems; Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its applications to
solid liquid, liquid-vapour and solid-vapour equilibria, phase diagram for one component systems, with applications. Phase diagrams for systems of solid-liquid equilibria involving eutectic, congruent and incongruent melting points, solid solutions. Three component systems, waterchloroform-acetic acid system, triangular plots. Binary solutions: Gibbs-Duhem-Margules equation, its derivation and applications to fractional distillation of binary miscible liquids (ideal and nonideal), azeotropes, lever rule, partial
miscibility of liquids, CST, miscible pairs, steam distillation. Nernst distribution law: its derivation and applications.
13. Introduction to Quantum Chemistry:
Introduction to black-body radiation and distribution of energy, photo-electic effect, concept of quantization, wave particle duality (de-Broglie’s hypothesis), The uncertainty
principle, The wave function: wave function and its interpretation, conditions of normalization and Orthogonality and its significance. Basic idea about operators, eigen function and values, Schrodinger equation and application to free-particle and particle in a box, boundary conditions, wave functions and energies, degeneracy, hydrogen atom, Schrodinger equation in polar coordinates, radial and angular parts of the hydrogenic orbitals, degeneracies, spherical harmonics, representations of hydrogenic orbitals.
Quantitative treatment of simple harmonic osciallator model, setting up of Schodinger equation and discussion of solution of wave functions. Rigid rotator model and discussion of application of Schrodinger equation. idea about transformation to spherical polar coordinate, discussion on solution.
Qualitative treatment of hydrogen atom and hydrogen-like ions: setting up of Schrödinger equation in spherical polar coordinates, radial part, quantization of energy (only final energy expression). Average and most probable distances of electron from nucleus. Valence bond and molecular orbital approaches, LCAO-MO treatment of H2, H2 + ; bonding and anti-bonding orbitals, Comparison of LCAO-MO and VB treatments of H2(only wavefunctions, detailed solution not required) and their limitations.
14. Conductance
Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation. Conductivity, equivalent and molar conductivity and their variation with dilution for weak and strong electrolytes. Molar conductivity at infinite dilution. Kohlrausch law of independent migration of ions. DebyeHückel-Onsager equation, Wien effect, Debye-Falkenhagen effect, Walden’s rules. Ionic velocities, mobilities and their determinations, transference numbers and their relation to ionic mobilities, determination of transference numbers using Hittorf and Moving Boundary methods. Applications of conductance measurement: (i) degree of dissociation of weak electrolytes, (ii) ionic product of water (iii) solubility and solubility product of
sparingly soluble salts, (iv) conductometric titrations, and (v) hydrolysis constants of salts.
15. Electrochemistry
Quantitative aspects of Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, rules of oxidation/reduction of ions based on half-cell potentials, applications of electrolysis in metallurgy and industry. Chemical cells, reversible and irreversible cells with examples. Electromotive force of a cell and its measurement, Nernst equation; Standard electrode (reduction) potential and its application to different kinds of half-cells. Application of EMF measurements indetermining (i) free energy, enthalpy and entropy of a cell reaction, (ii) equilibrium constants, and (iii) pH values, using hydrogen, quinone-hydroquinone, glass and SbO/Sb2O3 electrodes. Concentration cells with and without transference, liquid junction
potential; determination of activity coefficients and transference numbers. Qualitative discussion of potentiometric titrations (acid-base, redox, precipitation).
Inorganic Chemistry
1. Atomic Structure
Bohr’s theory, its limitations and atomic spectrum of hydrogen atom. Wave mechanics: de’ Broglie equation, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and its significance, Schrödinger’s wave equation, significance of ψ and ψ2. Quantum numbers and their significance. Normalized and orthogonal wave functions. Sign of wave functions. Radial and angular wave functions for hydrogen atom. Radial and angular distribution curves. Shapes of s, p, d and f orbitals. Contour boundary and probability diagrams. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity, Aufbau’s principle and its limitations, Variation of orbital energy with atomic number.
2. Periodicity of Elements
s, p, d, f block elements, the long form of periodic table. Detailed discussion of the following properties of the elements, with reference to s and p-block.
(a) Effective nuclear charge, shielding or screening effect, Slater rules, variation of effective nuclear charge in periodic table.
(b) Atomic radii (van’der Waals)
(c) Ionic and crystal radii.
(d) Covalent radii (octahedral and tetrahedral)
(e) Ionization enthalpy, Successive ionization enthalpies and factors affecting ionization energy. Applications of ionization enthalpy.
(f) Electron gain enthalpy, trends of electron gain enthalpy.
(g)Electronegativity, Pauling, Mullikan, Allred Rachow scales, electronegativity and bond order, partial charge, hybridization, group electronegativity. Sanderson electron density ratio
3. Chemical Bonding
(i) Ionic bond: General characteristics, types of ions, size effects, radius ratio rule and its limitations. Packing of ions in crystals. Born-Landé equation with derivation, expression for lattice energy. Madelung constant, Born-Haber cycle and its application, Solvation energy.
(ii) Covalent bond: Lewis structure, Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR), Shapes of simple molecules and ions containing lone-and bond-pairs of electrons multiple bonding, sigma and pi-bond approach, Valence Bond theory, (HeitlerLondon approach). Hybridization containing s, p and s, p, d atomic orbitals, shapes ofhybrid orbitals, Bents rule, Resonance and resonance energy, Molecular orbital theory. Molecular orbital diagrams of simple homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules, MO diagrams of simple tri and tetra-atomic molecules, e.g., N2, O2, C2, B2, F2, CO, NO, and their ions; HCl, BeF2, CO2, HCHO, (idea of s-p mixing and orbital interaction to be given). Covalent character in ionic compounds, polarizing power and polarizability. Fajan rules, polarization. Ionic character in covalent compounds: Bond moment and dipole moment. ionic character from dipole moment and electronegativities.
4. Metallic bonding and Weak chemical forces
(iii) Metallic Bond: Qualitative idea of free electron model, Semiconductors, Insulators.(iv) Weak Chemical Forces: van’der Waals, ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, induced dipole
dipoleinduced dipole interactions, Lenard-Jones 6-12 formula, hydrogen bond, effects of hydrogen bonding on melting and boiling points, solubility, dissolution.
5. Oxidation-Reduction and general principle of metallurgy
Redox equations, Standard Electrode Potential and its application to inorganic reactions. Occurrence of metals based on standard electrode potentials. Ellingham diagrams for
reduction of metal oxides using carbon or carbon monoxide as reducing agent. Electrolytic Reduction, Hydrometallurgy. Methods of purification of metals: Electrolytic Kroll process, Parting process, van Arkel- de Boer process and Mond’s process, Zone refining.
6. Chemistry of s and p Block Elements
Inert pair effect, Relative stability of different oxidation states, diagonal relationship and anomalous behavior of first member of each group. Allotropy and catenation. Complex
formation tendency of s and p block elements. Hydrides and their classification ionic, covalent and interstitial. Basic beryllium acetate and nitrate. Structure, bonding, preparation, properties and uses. Boric acid and borates, boron nitrides, borohydrides (diborane) carboranes and graphitic compounds, silanes, Oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen, Phosphorus and chlorine. Per-oxo acids of Sulphur interhalogen compounds, polyhalide ions, pseudo-halogens, properties of halogens.
7. Noble Gases
Occurrence and uses, rationalization of inertness of noble gases, Clathrates; preparation and properties of XeF2, XeF4 and XeF6; Bonding in noble gas compounds (Valence bond and MO treatment for XeF2), Shapes of noble gas compounds (VSEPR theory).
8. Inorganic Polymers
Types of inorganic polymers, comparison with organic polymers, synthesis, structural aspects and applications of silicones and siloxanes. Borazines, silicates andphosphazenes, and polysulphates.
9. Coordination Chemistry
Werner’s theory, EAN rule, piano-stool compounds, valence bond theory (inner and outer orbital complexes), Crystal field theory, d-orbital splitting, weak and strong fields, pairing
energies, factors affecting the magnitude of (Δ). Octahedral vs. tetrahedral coordination, tetragonal distortions from octahedral geometry Jahn-Teller theorem, square planar complexes, d orbital splitting in trigonal bipyramidal, square pyramidal and cubic ligand field environments, CFSE, Variation of lattice energies, enthalpies of hydration and crystal radii variations in halides of first and second row transition metal series, Qualitative aspect of Ligand field theory, MO diagrams of representative coronation
complexes, IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds, isomerism in coordinationcompounds. Stereochemistry of complexes with the coordination number 4 and 6, Chelate effect,
10. Transition Elements
General group trends with special reference to electronic configuration, colour, variable valency, magnetic and catalytic properties, and ability to form complexes. Stability ofvarious oxidation states and e.m.f. (Latimer & Bsworth diagrams). Difference betweenthe first, second and third transition series. Chemistry of Ti, V, Cr Mn, Fe and Co in various oxidation states (excluding their metallurgy)
11. Lanthanoids and Actinides
Electronic configuration, oxidation states, color, spectra and magnetic behavior, lanthanide contraction, separation of lanthanides (ion-exchange method only).
12. Bioinorganic Chemistry
Metal ions present in biological systems, classification of elements according to their action in biological system. Geochemical effect on distribution of metals. Sodium / Kpump, carbonic anhydrase and carboxypeptidase. Excess and deficiency of some trace metals. Toxicity of metal ions (Hg, Pb, Cd and As), toxicity, chelating agents in medicine. Iron and its application in biosystems, Haemoglobin; Storage and transfer of iron.
13. Organometallic Compounds
Definition and classification of organometallic compounds on the basis of bond type. Concept of hapticity of organic ligands. Metal carbonyls: 18 electron rule, electron count
of mononuclear, polynuclear and substituted metal carbonyls of 3d series. General methods of preparation (direct combination, reductive carbonylation, thermal and photochemical decomposition) of mono and binuclear carbonyls of 3d series. Structures of mononuclear and binuclear carbonyls of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni using VBT. piacceptor behaviour of CO (MO diagram of CO to be discussed), synergic effect and use of IR data to explain extent of back bonding.

Organic Chemistry
1. Basics of Organic Chemistry
Organic Compounds: Classification, and Nomenclature, Hybridization, Shapes of molecules, Influence of hybridization on bond properties. Electronic Displacements: Inductive, electromeric, resonance and mesomeric effects, hyperconjugation and their applications; Dipole moment; Organic acids and bases; their relative strength. Homolytic and Heterolytic fission with suitable examples. Curly arrow rules, formal charges; Electrophiles and Nucleophiles; Nucleophlicity and basicity; Types, shape and relative stabilities of reaction intermediates (Carbocations, Carbanions, Free radicals and Carbenes). Organic reactions and their mechanism: Addition, Elimination and Substitution reactions.
2. Stereochemistry
Concept of asymmetry, Fischer Projection, Newmann and Sawhorse projection formulae and their interconversions; Geometrical isomerism: cis–trans and, syn-anti isomerism E/Z notations with C.I.P rules. Optical Isomerism: Optical Activity, Specific Rotation, Chirality/Asymmetry, Enantiomers, Molecules with two or more chiral-centres, Distereoisomers, meso structures, Racemic mixtures, Relative and absolute configuration: D/L and R/S designations.
3. Chemistry of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Carbon-Carbon sigma bonds Chemistry of alkanes: Formation of alkanes, Wurtz Reaction, Wurtz- Fittig Reactions,
Free radical substitutions: Halogenation - relative reactivity and selectivity. Carbon-Carbon pi-bonds. Formation of alkenes and alkynes by elimination reactions, Mechanism of E1, E2, E1cb
reactions. Saytzeff and Hofmann eliminations. Reactions of alkenes: Electrophilic additions their mechanisms (Markownikoff/ Anti Markownikoff addition), mechanism of
oxymercuration demercuration, hydroboration- oxidation, ozonolysis, reduction (catalytic and chemical), syn and anti-hydroxylation (oxidation). 1, 2- and 1, 4- addition reactions in conjugated dienes and, DielsAlder reaction; Allylic and benzylic bromination and mechanism, e.g. propene, 1-butene, toluene, ethyl benzene. Reactions of alkynes: Acidity, Electrophilic and Nucleophilic additions.
4. Cycloalkanes and Conformational Analysis
Cycloalkanes and stability, Baeyer strain theory, Conformation analysis, Energy diagrams of cyclohexane: Chair, Boat and Twist boat forms.
5. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Aromaticity: Huckel’s rule, aromatic character of arenes, cyclic carbocations/carbanions and heterocyclic compounds with suitable examples. Electrophilic aromatic substitution: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation and Friedel-Craft’s alkylation/acylation with their mechanism. Directing effects of substituent groups.
6. Chemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons
Alkyl halides: Methods of preparation, nucleophilic substitution reactions – SN1, SN2 and SNi mechanisms with stereochemical aspects and effect of solvent etc.; nucleophilic
substitution vs. elimination. Aryl halides: Preparation, including preparation from diazonium salts. nucleophilic aromatic substitution; SNAr, Benzyne mechanism. Relative reactivity of alkyl,
allyl/benzyl, vinyl and aryl halides towards nucleophilic substitution reactions. Organometallic compounds of Mg and Li and their use in synthesis.
7. Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers and Epoxides
Alcohols: preparation, properties and relative reactivity of 1°, 2°, 3° alcohols, BouvaeltBlanc Reduction; Preparation and properties of glycols: Oxidation by periodic acid and lead tetraacetate, Pinacol-Pinacolone rearrangement. Phenols: Preparation and properties; Acidity and factors effecting it, Ring substitution reactions, Reimer–Tiemann and Kolbe’s–Schmidt Reactions, Fries and Claisen rearrangements with mechanism. Ethers and Epoxides: Preparation and reactions with acids. Reactions of epoxides with alcohols, ammonia derivatives and LiAlH4
8. Carbonyl Compounds
Structure, reactivity and preparation; Nucleophilic additions, Nucleophilic additionelimination reactions with ammonia derivatives with mechanism; Mechanisms of Aldol and Benzoin condensation, Knoevenagel condensation, Claisen-Schmidt, Perkin, Cannizzaro and Wittig reaction, Beckmann and Benzil-Benzilic acid rearrangements,
haloform reaction and Baeyer Villiger oxidation, α-substitution reactions, oxidations and reductions (Clemmensen, WolffKishner, LiAlH4, NaBH4, MPV, PDC and PGC);
Addition reactions of unsaturated carbonyl compounds: Michael addition. Active methylene compounds: Keto-enol tautomerism. Preparation and synthetic applications of diethyl malonate and ethyl acetoacetate.
9. Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives
Preparation, physical properties and reactions of monocarboxylic acids: Typical reactions of dicarboxylic acids, hydroxy acids and unsaturated acids: succinic/phthalic, lactic,
malic, tartaric, citric, maleic and fumaric acids; Preparation and reactions of acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters and amides; Comparative study of nucleophilic substitution at acyl group -Mechanism of acidic and alkaline hydrolysis of esters, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann and Reformatsky reactions, Hofmann bromamide degradation
and Curtius rearrangement.
10. Sulphur containing compounds
Preparation and reactions of thiols, thioethers and sulphonic acids
11. Nitrogen Containing Functional Groups
Preparation and important reactions of nitro and compounds, nitriles and isonitriles Amines: Effect of substituent and solvent on basicity; Preparation and properties: Gabriel
phthalimide synthesis, Carbylamine reaction, Mannich reaction, Hoffmann’s exhaustive methylation, Hofmann-elimination reaction; Distinction between 1°, 2° and 3° amines with Hinsberg reagent and nitrous acid. Diazonium salts: Preparation and synthetic applications.
12. Polynuclear Hydrocarbons
Reactions of naphthalene phenanthrene and anthracene Structure, Preparation and structure elucidation and important derivatives of naphthalene and anthracene; Polynuclear hydrocarbons.
13. Heterocyclic Compounds
Classification and nomenclature, Structure, aromaticity in 5-numbered and 6-membered rings containing one heteroatom; Synthesis, reactions and mechanism of substitution
reactions of Furan, Pyrrole (Paal-Knorr synthesis, Knorr pyrrole synthesis, Hantzsch synthesis), Thiophene, Pyridine (Hantzsch synthesis), Pyrimidine, Structure elucidation
of indole, Fischer indole synthesis and Madelung synthesis), Structure elucidation of quinoline and isoquinoline, Skraup synthesis, Friedlander’s synthesis, Knorr quinoline
synthesis, Doebner-Miller synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski reaction, Pictet-Spengler reaction, Pomeranz-Fritsch reaction Derivatives of furan: Furfural and furoic acid.
14. Alkaloids
Natural occurrence, General structural features, Isolation and their physiological action Hoffmann’s exhaustive methylation, Emde’s modification, Structure elucidation and
synthesis of Hygrine and Nicotine. Medicinal importance of Nicotine, Hygrine, Quinine, Morphine, Cocaine, and Reserpine
15. Terpenes
Occurrence, classification, isoprene rule; Elucidation of stucture and synthesis of Citral, Neral and α-terpineol
16. Organic Spectroscopy
Basic Principles of UV Spectroscopy: Application of Woodward-Fiser rule in interpretation of Organic compounds: Application of visible, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy in organic molecules. Electromagnetic radiation, electronic transitions, λmax & εmax, chromophore, auxochrome, bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts. Application of electronic spectroscopy and Woodward rules for
calculating λmax of conjugated dienes and α,β – unsaturated compounds.

Basic principles of IR Spectroscopy: Identification of Functional groups of various classes of organic compounds: Infrared radiation and types of molecular vibrations, functional group and fingerprint region. IR spectra of alkanes, alkenes and simple alcohols (inter and intramolecular hydrogen bonding), aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives (effect of substitution
on >C=O stretching absorptions). NMR (1 H and 13C NMR):
Application of Chemical Shifts, Splitting of signals, Spin coupling and Over Houser effect in interpretation of NMR spectra, Isotopic exchange
Basic principles Mass Spectrometry: Application of fragmentation rule in characterization of organic compounds. Problems on structure elucidation of organic compounds based on spectral data.

Computer Science and Information Technology (SCQP09)

Thinking and Decision Making: Creative thinking, unfamiliar relationships, verbalreasoning, finding patterns trends and Assessment of figures & diagrams.
 Geometrical designs &Identification
 Selection of related letters / words / numbers /figures
 Identification of odd thing / item out from a group
 Completion of numerical series based on the pattern /logic
 Fill in the blanks of the series based on the numerical pattern and logic of theseries
 Syllogisms (logic-based questions), Identification of logic & selection of correctanswers based on the logic
 Set Theory: Concept of sets – Union, Intersection, Cardinality, Elementary counting; permutations and combinations. • Probability and Statistics: Basic concepts of probability theory, Averages,
Dependent and independent events, frequency distributions, measures of central tendencies and dispersions.
 Algebra: Fundamental operations in algebra, expansions, factorization, simultaneous linear /quadratic equations, indices, logarithms, arithmetic,geometric and harmonic progressions, determinants and matrices.
 Coordinate Geometry: Rectangular Cartesian coordinates, distance formulae, equation of a line, and intersection of lines, pair of straight lines, equations of a circle, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola.
 Calculus: Limit of functions, continuous function, differentiation of function, tangents and normal, simple examples of maxima and minima. Integration of functions by parts, by substitution and by partial fraction, definite integrals, applications of definite integrals to areas.
 Vectors: Position vector, addition and subtraction of vectors, scalar and vector products and their applications to simple geometrical problems and mechanics.
 Trigonometry: Simple identities, trigonometric equations, properties of triangles,solution of triangles, heights and distances, general solutions of trigonometric equations. Computer Awareness:
 Computer Basics: Organization of a computer, Central Processing Unit (CPU), structure of instructions in CPU, input/output devices, computer memory, and back-up devices.
 Data Representation: Representation of characters, integers and fractions, binary and hexadecimal representations, binary arithmetic: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, simple arithmetic and two’s complement arithmetic, floating point representation of numbers, Boolean algebra, truth tables, Venn diagrams.

Environmental Sciences/Studies (SCQP11)

Earth Sciences: Structure and composition of Environment- Atmosphere, Hydrosphere and Lithosphere, Earth Processes, Mineral and Power Resources in India, Biogeochemical Cycles, Meteorology, Climate Change, Origin and evolution of earth, Mineral and Power Resources in India.
Physical and Chemical Sciences: Fundamentals, Atmospheric Chemistry, Water Chemistry, Geochemistry, Green Chemistry. Water - physical characteristics, buffering capacity, Essential and trace elements in living systems, Bio-molecules - chemical components of cells, Bio- geochemical cycles – carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, Hydrological cycle and global water balance, Toxicity of Heavy metals.
Life Sciences:
Origin of life: Theories of evolution, genetic drift, speciation, cell organelles, cell division, modes of reproduction, principles of inheritance, epistasis, mutations, chromosomal aberrations,extra- chromosomal inheritance.
Genetic Material: DNA structure and replication, transcription and translation, chromosome structure, protein structure, mutability and repair of DNA, reverse genetics.
Photosynthesis, Plant growth hormones, Dormancy and seed germination, Respiration Plant and Animal systematics: Bryophytes, Tracheophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms. Membrane structure and Ion transport, ATPase - structure and function, Photosynthesis, Photoperiodism, Vernalization, RUBISCO.
Animal systematics, physiology and diseases: Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Chordata, Protostomia; Anatomy and physiology of humans; major classes of bacterial and viral pathogens, Apoptosisand cancer, inherited diseases, animal cell culture.
Ecology and Environment: Biosphere, Organizational levels of biosphere, Ecosystem: Structure and Types, Food Chain and Energy Flow, Population and Community Ecology, Biodiversity andits Conservation.
Microbiology and Biotechnology: Principles of Microbiology, Microbiology of Air, Water, Soil, Sewage,
Recombinant DNA technology, principles of gene cloning, transposition, applications of biotechnology in medicine, industry, agriculture and environment.
Natural resources and Management: Natural Resources-Forest, Water, Minerals, Marine, Energy (Renewable and Nonrenewable) - Sources, Threats, Conservation and Management,
Global Environmental issues: ozone depletion and global warming, Acid rain and Smog, Sustainable Development.
Environmental Pollution: Air, Water, Soil, Noise Pollution- Sources, Causes, Effects, Consequences.
Waste Management: Solid waste - disposal, Management; Waste to energy conversion. Instrumentation: Principles and applications of microscopy, spectrophotometry, centrifugation, radioisotope techniques, electrophoresis and chromatographic separation techniques, Blottingand hybridization techniques.

Forensic Science (SCQP13)

Definition, History, Development and Scope of Forensic Science in India. Basic Principles of Forensic Science and its Significance, Organization and Functioning of State and Central
Forensic Science Laboratories, Ethics in Forensic Science.
Definition, Types, Class and Individual Characteristics, Different Searching Methods for Locating Physical Evidences at Scene of Crime, Chain of Custody.

Historical Development of Police System in India. Police in Indian Constitution. Objective of Police, General organization of Police at State & Range Level. Police Organization under Central Government: General Information, Structure and Function of
A. [1] BSF (2] Assam Rifles [3] CRPF [4] CISF [5] ITBP [6] NSG
[1] BPR & D [2) CBI [3] lB [4] RAW [5] NCRB [6) NICFS [7] NPA [8] UT PoliceForce.
POLICE SCIENCE Definition & Scope.

Who is an Investigator, Investigator & his Qualities, General Guidelines for Investigator, Interview of Witness and Interrogation of suspect.
SCENE OF CRIME:  Meaning, Types , Protection of Scene of Crime, Crime Scene Documentation- Note Taking, Videography, Photography and, Sketching Methods, Importance of Photography, General Guidelines, Admissibility in Court, Various forms such as Videography.

Elements of Crime Scene Management: - Information Management, Technology Management, Man-Power Management & Logistic Management. Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction, Nature of Reconstruction, Basic Principles for Physical Evidence and Reconstruction (Recognition, Identification, Individualization And Reconstruction), Stages in Reconstruction, Types of Reconstruction, Pattern Evidence in Reconstruction (Bloodstain Pattern Analysis forReconstruction, Glass Fracture Patterns, Fire Burn Patterns, Tire and Skid
Mark Patterns), Writing A Reconstruction Report. IPC (1860), Cr. P.C (1973) and IEA (1872)
Pertaining to Offences against Persons — Sections l20A, 299, 300, 302,304A, 304B, 307, 309, 319, 320, 324, 326, 351, 354, 359, 362. Sections 375 & 377 and their Amendments.
Pertaining to Offences against Property Sections — 378, 383, 390, 391, 405,415, 420,441, 463, 4- 7, 498A, 499, 503, 511. Cr.P.C. (1973) Sections- 26, 27, 29, 31, 144, 154-158, 176, 291, 292, 293. IEA (1872) - Evidence and Rules of Relevancy in Brief, Expert Witness, Cross
Examination and Re-Examination of Witnesses. Sections - 32, 45, 46, 135, 136, 137, 138

Fingerprints: History, Types of Fingerprints, Type of Finger Print Patterns, Different Classifications, Systems Location and Preservation of Fingerprints, Development of Latent
Prints by Physical and Chemical Methods, Matching of Fingerprints. Documents: Definition of Questioned Documents, Types of Documents, Types of Writing Instruments their Characteristics and Examination, Paper and its Examination, Basic Tools needed for Forensic Document Examination- Ultraviolet, Visible, Infrared, and Fluorescence
Spectroscopy, Photomicrography, Microphotography, Visible Spectral Comparator, Electrostatic Detection Apparatus. Hand Writing: Hand Writing and its Characteristics, Factors Affecting Hand Writing, Samples for Comparison, Comparison of Hand Writings, Disguised and Indented Writings and their Detection, Typed and Computer Generated Documents, their Comparison, Alteration in Documents and their Detection, Foot & Shoe Prints, Methods of their Preservation and
Examination, Tyre Marks and Track Marks and their Examination.

Brief Description and Function of Human Digestive System, Respiratory System, Circulatory System, Nervous System, Reproductive System.
Structure, Composition and Examination of biological fluids like - Blood and Bloodstains, Seminal stains, Saliva, Urine, Pus, Feces etc. Hair and Fiber: Hair Anatomy, Collection, Examination of Hairs from Animal and Human Origin. Types of Fiber and their Properties, Examination etc. Forensic Botany: Introduction, Nature & Scope, Woods & their Identification and Matching, Diatoms and their Forensic Significance in Drowning Cases, Study and Identification of Pollen Grains. D N A: Structure of DNA, Polymorphism in DNA, General idea about RFLP and PCR Methods of
Biological Fluid Analysis, Merits and Demerits of RFLP and PCR, Advanced Methods for Forensic DNA Examination etc.
General Understanding Of: Distillations, Sublimation, Crystallization, Solvent Extraction. Chromatographic Techniques: Definition, Different Classification like- According to Mode, Principle,
Stationary Phase, etc., brief idea about Column Chromatography, Paper Chromatography, Thin Layer Chromatography, Gas Liquid Chromatography, LiquidChromatography, Hyphenated Chromatographic techniques as LC-MS, GGMS etc. Electromagnetic Spectrum & Spectroscopic Methods — Principle, Apparatus, Procedure
& Importance: Emission Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, UV Spectroscopy, Electron Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, IR & FTIR Spectroscopy.
General Idea About: Neutron Activation Analysis, Mass Spectrometry Electrophoresis- Principle, Types, Equipment and Processing, Immune electrophoresis, Analysis of Proteins by electrophoresis and their detection.
Meaning And Scope, Identification of a Person: Through all Factors in Fixing Identity, PostMortem Examination (Autopsy) (Types of Autopsy, Objectives, and Procedures), Meaning & Modes of Death, and their Characteristics, Signs of Death and Post-Mortem Changes. Wounds and their Characteristics, Injuries due to Heat, Lighting, Electricity and Radiation, Firearm Injuries, Differentiation between Ante-Mortem and Post-Mortem Wounds.
Poison and Types of Poisoning, Action of Poison, Factors Modifying the Action of Poison, Extraction, Isolation and Clean-Up Procedures- For Non-Volatile Organic Poison, Volatile Poisons, Toxic Cations or Metallic Poisons, Toxic Anions From Viscera, Drugs, Botanical Evidence, Biological Evidence etc. General idea and Examination of Opium, Semi — Synthetic Opiates, Cannabis products Such as Bhang, Ganja And Charas, LSD And Amphetamine, Important Benzodiazepines, Phenothiazines, Barbiturates Etc. Animal Poisons Like Snake, Cantharides, Bees, Wasp etc.
Photochemistry: Interaction of Radiation with Matter, Difference between Thermal and Photochemical Processes, Laws of Photochemistry, Grothus-Drapper Law, Stark-Einstein Law.
Jabolonski Diagram, Description of Fluorescence, Phosphoresence, Non-radiative Processes, Quantum Yield, Photosensitized Reactions, Energy Transfer Processes etc. Organic Chemistry- Structure and Bonding: Hybridization, Bond Length and Bond Angles, Bond Energy, Localized and Delocalized Chemical Bond. Structure and Characteristics of Alkane, Alkene, and Cycloalkane, Alcohol, Phenol, Ethers, Aldehyde, Ketone, Carboxylic Acid etc.
Inorganic Chemistry- Trends in Periodic Table and Applications in Predicting and Explaining the Physical and Chemical Behaviors. Definitions of Acid and Base, Classification of Acids andBases, Essential and Trace Elements in Biological Process, Metallo Porphyrins with Special Reference to Haemoglobin, Types of Magnetic Behaviors, Method of Determining Magnetic Susceptibility, Spin only Formula, L-S Coupling.
Physical Properties: Temperature, Weight and Mass, Density, Refractive Index, Diffraction,Polarization. Laws of Motion- Motion in a Uniform Field, Centripetal Acceleration, Motion under a
Central Force. Basic Optics: Light as an Electromagnetic wave, Interference of Light, Principle of Superposition, Two-Slit Interference, Michelson Interferometer and its Application. Microscopy: Numerical Aperture and Resolving Power of Microscopic Systems, How the Microscope Forms Images; Simple, Compound, Stereoscopic, Polarizing, Comparison, Fluorescence and Electron Microscopes.

Horticulture, Forestry, Seed Science, Rural Technology, Agronomy, Plant Breeding, Genetics (SCQP16)

Basic Biology: Spontaneous generation theory, prokaryotes vs eukaryotes, functional anatomy, structure and organization of bacteria, fungi and algae – economic importance, methods of sterilization, rhizosphere microorganisms and importance, plant-microbe interactions in soil, microbial transformation of nutrients in soil. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and amino acids – occurrence and classification, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, ETC and oxidative phosphorylation, secondary metabolites – occurrence, classification, functions and applications.
Ecology: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions. Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement. Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies; concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal, intergenic extinctions, age structured populations. Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis. Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones. Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax. Structure and function; energy flow and mineral cycling; primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial and aquatic. Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography;
biogeographical zones of India.
Plant Biology: Photosynthesis: Light harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport; photo protective mechanisms; CO2 fixation-C3, C4 and CAM pathways. Citric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photo respiratory pathway. Nitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid biosynthesis. Plant hormones: Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action. Structure, function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes and phytotropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks.
Solute transport and photo assimilate translocation: Uptake, transport and translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photo assimilates. Secondary metabolites - Biosynthesis of terpenes, phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles.Responses of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; mechanisms of resistance to biotic stress and tolerance to abiotic stress. Plant tissue culture and applications, molecular marker technology, transgenic technology – GMOs, transgenic plants for biotic and abiotic stress resistance and quality improvement, molecular pharming – production of vaccines, therapeutic proteins,
industrial enzymes and bioplastics.
Microscopic Techniques: Visualization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy, resolving powers of different microscopes, microscopy of living cells, scanning and transmission microscopes, different fixation and staining techniques for EM, freeze-etch and freeze-fracture methodsfor EM, image processing
methods in microscopy.
Methods in Field biology: Methods of estimating population density of animals and plants, ranging patterns through direct, indirect and remote observations, sampling methods in the study of behavior, habitat characterization-ground and remote sensing methods.
Horticulture: Scope and importance; global scenario of horticultural crops, classification of horticulturalcrops – nutritive value of horticultural crops, horticulture zones of India. Systematic botany – terminology, morphology description and classification of root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, Flower and fruits – flowering mechanism – modes of pollination – asexual/ vegetative reproduction –
floral biology – fertilization and fruit set, Principles involved in nomenclature.
Landscaping and Gardening: Importance and scope of gardening, gardens in India – concepts of landscape gardening – styles and types of gardens – Hindu, Mughal, English, Italian, Persian and
Japanese gardens, ornamental landscaping in environmental protection.
Food Technology: Food processing industries/institutions/food scientists of importance in India, causesof food spoilage, methods of food preservation, post-harvest and storage of fresh fruits and vegetables,preparations of fruits and vegetables for processing, technology of foods of animal origin.

Life Sciences (SCQP17)

1. Techniques: Principles and applications of chromatography, spectroscopy, microscopy, electrophoresis, centrifugation, blotting, PCR & radioisotope techniques
2. Chromatin structure and function: Organization of chromosomes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, chromatin types, centromere, Telomere and concept of gene
3. Biochemistry: Structure and functions of proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, lipids & vitamins. Bioenergetics, Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Electron Transport System and ATP synthesis, oxidation and synthesis of fatty acid, membrane structure and function
4. Biotechnology: Recombinant DNA technology, principles of gene cloning, applications of biotechnology in medicine, industry and agriculture, animal & plant cell culture,
environmental biotechnology
5. Microbiology: Diversity of microbes, bacterial reproduction, antimicrobial agents, significance of microbes in the industry and agriculture, antigen, antibody, complement systems, immunity, vaccines, plant virus, animal virus and environmental microbiology.
6. Molecular Genetics: Principles of inheritance, linkage & crossing over, chromosomal aberrations, extrachromosomal inheritance, replication, transcription, translation, DNA repair
and population genetics.
7. Plant Sciences: Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, Vascular system in plants, Economic important of plants, Photosynthesis, Photoperiodism, Vernalization, and
Biogeochemical cycle
8. Animal Sciences: Characteristics of invertebrates and vertebrates, anatomy and physiology of different system of humans, nerve impulse transmission, endocrinology, human diseases
Apoptosis and cancer, inherited diseases, animal cell culture.

Mathematics (SCQP19)

Algebra: Groups, subgroups, Abelian groups, non-abelian groups, cyclic groups, permutation groups; Normal subgroups, Lagrange's Theorem for finite groups, group homomorphism and quotient groups, Rings, Subrings, Ideal, Prime ideal; Maximal ideals; Fields, quotient field. Vector spaces, Linear dependence and Independence of vectors, basis, dimension, linear
transformations, matrix representation with respect to an ordered basis, Range space and null space, rank-nullity theorem; Rank and inverse of a matrix, determinant, solutions of systems of linear equations, consistency conditions. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Symmetric, Skew symmetric, Hermitian, Skew-Hermitian, Orthogonal and Unitary matrices.
Real Analysis: Sequences and series of real numbers. Convergent and divergent sequences, boundedand monotone sequences, Convergence criteria for sequences of real numbers, Cauchy sequences, absolute and conditional convergence; Tests of convergence for series of positive terms-comparison test, ratio test, root test, Leibnitz test for convergence of alternating series.
Functions of one variable: limit, continuity, differentiation, Rolle's Theorem, Cauchy’s Taylor's theorem. Interior points, limit points, open sets, closed sets, bounded sets, connected sets, compact sets; completeness of R, Power series (of real variable) including Taylor's and Maclaurin's, domainof convergence, term-wise differentiation and integration of power series.
Functions of two real variable: limit, continuity, partial derivatives, differentiability, maxima and minima. Method of Lagrange multipliers, Homogeneous functions including Euler's theorem.
Complex Analysis: Functions of a complex Variable, Differentiability and analyticity, Cauchy Riemann Equations, Power series as an analytic function, properties of line integrals, GoursatTheorem, Cauchy theorem, consequence of simply connectivity, index of a closed curves. Cauchy’s integral formula, Morera’s theorem, Liouville’s theorem, Fundamental theorem of Algebra, Harmonic functions.
Integral Calculus: Integration as the inverse process of differentiation, definite integrals and their properties, Fundamental theorem of integral calculus. Double and triple integrals, changeof order of integration. Calculating surface areas and volumes using double integrals and applications. Calculating volumes using triple integrals and applications.
Differential Equations: Ordinary differential equations of the first order of the form y'=f(x,y). Bernoulli's equation, exact differential equations, integrating factor, Orthogonal trajectories,
Homogeneous differential equations-separable solutions, Linear differential equations of secondand higher order with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters. Cauchy-Euler equation.
Vector Calculus: Scalar and vector fields, gradient, divergence, curl and Laplacian. Scalar line integrals and vector line integrals, scalar surface integrals and vector surface integrals, Green's, Stokes and Gauss theorems and their applications.
Linear Programing:
Convex sets, extreme points, convex hull, hyper plane & polyhedral Sets, convex function and concave functions, Concept of basis, basic feasible solutions, Formulation of Linear Programming Problem (LPP), Graphical Method of LPP, Simplex Method.

Physiotherapy (SCQP21)

• Regional Anatomy: Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis, Endocrine System
• Musculoskeletal Anatomy
• Neuroanatomy
• General Physiology: Cell, and its Transport Mechanisms
• Blood
• Nerve Muscle Physiology
• Cardiovascular System
• Respiratory System
• Digestive System
• Endocrine System
• Special Senses
• Nervous System
• Renal System
• Reproductive System
• Exercise Physiology
• Nutrition
• Metabolism of Carbohydrate, Lipids, Proteins, Vitamins and Minerals
• Muscle Contraction
• Biochemistry of Connective tissue
• Hormone Action
• Acid-Base, water and electrolyte balance
• Clinical Biochemistry
• Definition and scope of sociology in relation to Physiotherapy
• Socialization and Social Groups
• Role of Social Worker
• Social Problems of disabled
• Foundations of Yoga
• Yoga and Health
• Physiological effects of Yoga practices
• Introduction to Psychology
• Growth and Development
• Sensation, attention and perception
• Motivation, Frustration and Emotions
• Intelligence and Learning
• Personality
• Social and Clinical Psychology
• Basic Concepts in Biomechanics: Kinematics and Kinetics
• Joint structure and Function
• Muscle structure and function
• Biomechanics of the Thorax and Chest wall, Vertebral column, Peripheral joints,
Temporomandibular Joint
• Analysis of Posture and Gait
• General Pathology: Cell injuries, inflammation and repair, infectious diseases,
immunopathology, Neoplasia and Nutritional disorders
• Systemic pathology: Hematology, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Pathology,
Musculoskeletal System, Endocrine System, Neuropathology
• General Microbiology
• Immunology
• Bacteriology
• Virology
• Introduction to Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics
• Drugs used in disorders of Cardiovascular system, Autonomic Nervous system,
Musculoskeletal systems, Neurological Systems
• Drugs used in Inflammatory/Immune Diseases, movement disorders, Digestion and
• Introduction to Exercise Therapy
• Methods of Testing: MMT, Goniometry, etc.
• Relaxation
• Different types of Movements/Exercises – Active, Passive, Active – Assisted, Resistedetc.
• Stretching
• Manual Therapy – Joint Mobilization, Manipulation and Soft Tissue ManipulationTechnique
• Aerobic exercises
• Balance and Coordination
• Gait and Posture including assistive devices
• Hydrotherapy
• Bio-Physics: Physical principles, Physics of devices, currents, sound and light, electrical supply
• Nerve Muscle Physiology and Pain physiology
• Low, Medium and High Frequency currents – physiological effects, indications,
contraindications and application
• Actinotherapy – IRR, UVR
• Cryotherapy
• Ultrasound and LASER
• Superficial and Deep Heating Modalities- physiological effects, indications,
contraindications and application
• Electro-diagnosis – SD curve, EMG and NCV
• Biofeedback
Medical, Surgical and Physiotherapy assessment and management of:
• Infectious diseases
• Diseases of the cardiorespiratory system
• Endocrine diseases
• Diseases of the blood
• Diseases of the digestive and renal systems
• Diseases of the Skin
• Pediatrics
• Geriatrics
• Psychiatric Disorders
• Wound healing and Scars management
• General Pre and Post – Operative Complications and management.
• Surgical Oncology
• Thoracic and Abdominal Surgeries
• Burns
• ENT and Ophthalmology
• Obstetrics and Gynecology
• I.C.U. Management
Clinical, Surgical Orthopedics and Physiotherapy assessment and management of:
• Fractures and Dislocations of Upper Limb and Lower Limb
• Fractures of Pelvis and Spine
• Soft Tissue Injuries
• Infectious, Inflammatory, Neoplastic and Degenerative Disorders
• Congenital and Acquired Deformities
• Amputations
• Orthoses and prostheses
• Manual Physiotherapy
• Medical, Surgical and Physiotherapy assessment and management of Brain, Spinal Cord,
Peripheral Nerve (injuries), Muscle Disorders and Paediatric Neurological conditions
• Neurophysiological Approaches: NDT, MRP, Roods etc.
• Vestibular Rehabilitation
• Medical, Surgical and Physiotherapy assessment and management of, Cardiovascular
Diseases, Peripheral Vascular Diseases and Respiratory Diseases
• Physiotherapy techniques for Broncho-pulmonary hygiene
• Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment and training
• Cardiac Rehabilitation
• ICU set up and Physiotherapy care
• Physical fitness
• Prevention and Treatment of Sports specific injuries including overuse injuries
• Health and Disease
• Epidemiology: Principles and Methods
• Health programs in India
• Nutrition and Health
• Occupational Health
• Disaster Management
• Environment and Health
• Mental Health
• Community based Rehabilitation
• Disability and Disability Evaluation
• Industrial Health & Ergonomics
• Role of Government, voluntary organizations and NGOs in CBR
• Vocational training
• Introduction to Research methodology and Biostatistics
• Formulation of Research problem and design
• Sampling
• Measurement & scaling techniques
• Methods of data collection
• Testing of hypothesis
• Measures of central tendency and dispersion
• Normal Probability Curve
• Statistical tests and their types
• Clinical decision Making
• Introduction to Evidence Based Practice
• Development of Evidence based knowledge
• Assessing and using the evidence
• Communicating evidence
• Biomedical ethical principles and code of conduct
• Code of ethics for physiotherapists
• Documentation and Informed Consent
• Nature and scope of administration
• Role of administrator
• Principles of hospital administration and its applications to physiotherapy.
• Planning and organization
• Personnel management

Q:   What are the factors upon which CUET PG exam difficulty level depends?


The CUET PG exam difficulty level is depicted in the range of moderate to high. CUET PG examination is conducted into various streams and master's subjects, therefore it is difficult to say the difficulty level of the examination subject wise. However, the difficulty level of the exam varies from subject to subject. 

Here are some factors upon which CUET PG examination level depends:

  1. First and foremost the exam difficulty level depends upon the preparation done by the appearing candidates.
  2. The level of questions aked by the exam authority during the examination. Some questions asked in the examination are highly miscellaneous, which increases the difficulty level of the question paper. 
  3. Difficulty level factors also depends upon the number of seats the participating university is offering, or whether the number of applicants for the particular subjects are high. Difficulty level also depends on the demand of the course among the students across the country. For example- MSc Mathematics course is highly popular among the BSc undergraduates, therefore the number of applicants for the same will be high, also the cut off of MSc Maths will be high of reputed/High NIRF ranking institutes.

Q:   Is it compulsory to attempt all the sections of the CUET PG 2024 question paper?


NTA, National Testing Agency is the examination conducting body of CUET PG examination. The exam syllabus, structure of the examination is set by the NTA for the ongoing academic session. 

On the basis of previous year's trends it is highly expected that NTA will set the CUET PG 2024 structure in such a way that the examination will have 2 sections to be attempted by the candidates. The section I of the examintion will be General Aptitude specific and Section II will be subject domain specific which depends upon the subject choose by the candidates while filling up the CUET PG 2024 examination. There is no complusion in attempting any question asked in the examination. However, it is being advised not to attempt the questions for which candiates are not sure about their answer. One mark will be deducted for every wrong answer marked by the candidates.

Q:   What is the CUET PG Syllabus for General Aptitude/ Reasoning Section?


CUET PG general test the following important topics: 

  • General Knowledge which covers the current affairs, some topics from general science, history, geography, environment, political science.
  • General mental ability, Numerical ability
  • Reasoning (Simple application of basic Mathematical concepts, quantitative arithmetic, algebra geometry, mensuration and statistics)
  • Logical and analytical reasoning

Candidates preparing for the general test of CUET PG are advised to stay updated with the current affairs by reading the newspapers and magazines.

CUET PG 2024 Syllabus: Humanities

Here is the expected CUET 2024 examination syllabus for the courses which comes under Humanities domain:

Ancient Indian History, Culture & Architecture (HUQP01)

Political History of India from circa 600 B.C. to 1200 A.D.- Political History of India (circa 600 AD to 300 AD) Political History of India (circa 300 AD to 750 AD) Political History of North India (circa 750 AD to 1200 AD)

Political History of South India (circa 750 AD to 1200 AD)
 Prehistory and Proto History of India
 Ancient Indian Social and Economic Life Institution
 Religion and Philosophy of Ancient India Vedic and Pure Religions Jainism and Buddhist
 Early Indian Art and Architecture From Beginning to Gupta Period Early Medieval India
 Ancient Indian Paleography and Epigraphy
 Ancient Indian Numismatics
 Ancient Civilization India's Cultural Contacts with South East Asia
 History Writing and Historiography of Ancient India
 History of Science & Technology in India

Anthropology (HUQP02)

Physical Anthropology/Biological Anthropology
Theories of Biological Evolution - Lamarckism and Neo– Lamarckism, Darwinism and Neo–Darwinism, Synthetic Theory of Evolution;
Cell Structure, RNA, DNA Structure and Function; DNA Replication; Protein Synthesis; Human Chromosomes; Chromosomal Aberrations; Human Blood Group Systems ABO and Rh
Mendel’s laws Linkage and Crossing Over, Inheritance Pattern;
Population Genetics; Evolutionary forces-Mutation, Genetic Difference, Administrative, Natural Selection,
Cell Divisions; Mitosis, Meiosis.
General Characteristics of Primates. New World Monkeys and Old World Monkeys: Anatomical Changes in Becoming a Biped – Vertebral Column and Skull, Pelvis and Birth Canal, Leg, Foot, Arm; Morphological differences between apes and man.
General Characteristics of Early Hominids – Australopithecus, Homo Erectus, Neanderthal Man, Archaic Homo Sapiens.
Human variation and Adaptation: Racial Classification, Human Skeleton, Anthropometry – Somatometry, Osteometry, Craniometry; Human Growth and Development. Human health and ecology.
Methods of Basic Data Analysis- Central tendency, Dispersion, Normal distribution, Chi-square test.
Social and Cultural Anthropology

Major branches of Anthropology
Social and Cultural Anthropology: Concept, Definition and its Scope, Ethnology and Ethnography.
SOCIETY - Social Group, Definition and characteristics of society, Social Institutions, Pre- literate Societies, Complex societies.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION - Age, Caste, Class, Gender, Division of Labour, Varna and Caste System in India.
SOCIAL CHANGE - Theories, factors of social change, Industrialization, modernization and developments.
MARRIAGE - Forms of Marriage, ways of acquiring mate, Functions of Marriage, Endogamy, Exogamy, Residence after Marriage, Preferential forms of marriage in traditional societies.
KINSHIP - Function, Consanguineal and Affinal, Kinship Terminology and Kinship Behavior, Lineage, Clan.
FAMILY - Nuclear, Joint and Extended, Characteristic and Functions. Theories on origin of Family,
Patriarchal and Matriarchal Family.
RELIGION - Origin of Religion, Animism, Animatism. Magic or primitive science. Types of Magic – Contagious, Imitative, Black and White Magic.
ECONOMY - Hunting and Gathering, Subsistence economy, Reciprocity, Barter system, Redistribution, Kula Ring, Potlatch.
POLITY - State and Stateless Society, Chiefdom, Political organization in pre-industrial society, power and dispute settlement, Norms, Mores and Penalty measures, oath and ordeals in Customary law.
CULTURE Definition and characteristics of culture, material and non-material culture, Rites and rituals, Rites de passage, Sacred Complex, Sanskritization and Westernization, Little and great tradition, Enculturation, Acculturation, Assimilation, Cultural lag.
Social Evolution – Classical, Neo evolution and cultural ecology, School of Diffusion, Functionalism, NeoFunctionalism, Structural-Functionalism, Structuralism, Culture pattern, Ethnocentrism, Historical Particularism and Cultural Relativism.
Contribution of Social-Cultural Anthropologists:
E.B. Tylor, L.H. Morgan,Julian Steward, Leslie White, B. Malinowski, Radcliffe Brown, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict, Levi Strauss, Edmund Leach , M.N. Srinivas, L.P. Vidyarthi, S.C.Dube, D.N Majumdar, N.K Bose, G.S. Ghurye.
Concept of Tribe and Constitutional Safeguards to scheduled tribes
Linguistic Anthropology:

Structure of language- Phoneme, morphemes, sentence, grammar, script.Linguistic classification of Indian population.
Role of applied anthropology in administration, policy and public health. Fieldwork tradition in Social Anthropology Fieldwork – Rapport building, Primary and secondary data, questionnaire and schedule, observation, casestudy method and Interview
Archaeological Anthropology
History and growth; Aims, scope; Prehistoric Culture – Definition and bases of classification; Major stages – Pleistocene and Holocene, Plio-Pleistocene boundary;
Major environment and climatic changes of Pleistocene - glacial, pluvial Dating –Relative dating - Stratigraphy, Pollen analysis, Absolute Dating methods - Radiocarbon-14,
Potassium-Argon, Dendrochronology, Thermoluminescence. Limitations of Relative dating and Absolute Dating methods.
Prehistoric Lithic tool typology and technology -

Lower palaeolithic- pebble tools, chopper and chopping tools, hand axes and cleaver; Middle palaeolithic – clactonian, Levalloisian and Mousterian flakes, scrapers, point; Upper palaeolithic –knife, borer, burin, points; Mesolithic – microlithic; Neolithic – celt (axe, adze), ring stone, grinding stone. Block on block or anvil technique, direct percussion or stone hammer technique, cylinder or hollow hammer technique, clactonian technique, Levalloisian technique, discoid core or Mousterian technique, blade or fluting technique, pressure flaking technique, step flaking technique, retouch, grinding and polishing.
Pleistocene and Holocene prehistoric cultures – Lower palaeolithic – pebble and Acheulian tool culture (Oldowan, Sohan, Madrasian, Attirrampakkam, Choukoutien); Middle palaeolithic – Mousterian (Belan valley, Bhimbetka, Nevasa); Upper palaeolithic – (Birbhanpur, Bagor, Adamgarh, Sarainahar Rai); Mesolithic –Langhnaj & Bhimbetka; Neolithic –Burzahom, Brahmagiri, Sangakallu, Daojali Hading.
Chalcolithic Cultures in India: distribution, habitat and economy; Characters and antiquity of Ahar. Indus Valley Civilization - Extent, features and causes of decline of Indus civilization
Iron Age in India – antiquity, stages; PGW and NBP; Megalithic – concept and types: Menhir, avenue, dolmen, cairn, cist.

Applied Arts (HUQP03)

Understanding of symbol, Logo, Logotype and other corporate identify design.
• Elements of design-Line, Texture, Color, size, shape, prospective.
• Principal of design-Unity, contrast, size proportion, balance, movement, layout.
• Understanding about layout.
• Print media-Newspaper advantages and disadvantages.
• Types of newspaper advertising.
• Technical aspect of newspaper, characteristics of newspaper as an advertising medium.
• Print media-Magazine advantages and disadvantages. Types of magazines advertising.
• Technical aspects of magazine. Characteristics of magazines as an advertising medium.
• Outdoor media-poster, hoarding, sign boards, neon signs, transit advertising. Other medium of advertising-Special advertising, direct mail, point of purchase advertising.
• Media of sales promotion, packaging, trade shows and exhibits. Sampling, premiums and coupons. Techniques of story board for television commercial.
• Advertising as communication. Advertising as marketing communication. Advertising as communication. Advertising as marketing communication. Advertising & consumer behavior. Planning
of advertising campaign, non-commercial advertising. Concept behind advertising copywriting.
• Introduction of communication. Advance techniques of story board for different type of work. Photography-light, subject, camera, film and paper. Lighting effects, dark room practice, enlargingand
other techniques for printing of photo.
• Types of cameras, function of camera, parts of camera and their functions, focal length, aperture,shutter speed etc.
• Portraiture photography. Different lighting effects. Understanding about black and white photography. Difference lighting effects. Understanding about black & white photography
processing, developing and fixing the materials, expose contact and bromide printing, toning, copying techniques, developers and other related chemicals for use in darkroom.
• Print criticism-Understanding a good photograph and criticizing it with reference to originality, subject matter, print quality, lighting and presentation. Understanding about digital photography.
• Design Reproduction: composition and typographical setting with layout. Pre make ready of printing machine and printing in one color.
• Different types of printing techniques and process.
• Understanding about different types of paper and its use.
• Understanding about method of reproduction offset printing techniques and its uses.
• Study of new media and medium in printing.


Visual Studies
Broad knowledge of the history of world art in general, and of art in South Asia, from Indus Valley Civilization till the present, in particular. Candidates should have an understanding of formal, stylistic and iconographic aspects of South Asian art and be able to place them in their literary, cultural, historical, religious and liturgical context. In addition, a broad knowledge of the history of Western Art,from the Renaissance to the present day, and of the history of Asian art, including Far Eastern and Islamic art, are valuable. An awareness of current debates and new developments around art, heritage, museums and exhibitions is important, with an emphasis on the ability to critically engage with issues and themes related to art.
Cinema Studies
Broad knowledge of World Cinema, Film movements, Digital Media Cultures and, Film/Media Practice. There should be awareness of film media’s status as an aesthetic practice, a mass cultural form and an instigator of public debates. Candidates should display their knowledge of the public presence of cinema/media and the way certain film practices get linked to political controversies, festival bans, censorship debates and vandalism at exhibition venues. Some knowledge of the role of film criticism andwriting about cinema in the popular press will be helpful.
Theatre and Performance Studies
Broad knowledge of the history of theatre and dance including classical Greek theatre, Elizabethan theatre, classical Indian theatre, music, dance and performance cultures, bhakti performance traditions in India, modern theatre and contemporary performance practices. Some familiarity with dance in the larger context of Indian dance history, relationship of dance and society. Likewise, an engagement withmusical traditions, both classical and popular.
Some awareness of basic concepts like rasa and catharsis, the dynamics of body, space and time in different theatrical and dance traditions, the role of the actor/performer and spectator. Basic knowledge of the theoretical writings of Bharata, Bhatkhande, Kapila Vatsyayan, Susan Foster, Stanislavski, Brecht, Augusto Boal, Badal Sircar. An ability to see performances critically with an awareness of their social and political contexts. Emphasis on the capacity to describe the performances of everyday life, including festivals, rituals and ceremonies experienced at a local level within specific regional contexts.

Dance (HUQP05)

History and Development of classical Dances of India.
• Folk Dances and Folk theatre forms of India.
• Dance Treatises and Literature with reference to Indian Dances.
• Nritta, Nritya and Natya.
• Abhinayas of all four types.
• Rasa and Bhava.
• Nayaka – Nayika bheda.
• Dance in Epics and Puranas.
• Music and Taala systems (North and South Indian).
• Repertoire of all Indian Classical Dance Forms.
• Costumes and Jewelries of all Indian Classical Dance forms.
• About Prominent Institutions, Academies and Artistes of all Indian Dance forms.
• Dance festivals from all over India.
• Detailed study of Tandava and Lasya.
• Aesthetics in Indian Classical Dances.

Development and Labour Studies (HUQP06)

General awareness on issues related to Development and Labor Studies.
Capacity to comprehend and reflect on academic articles, and the ability in analytical reasoning on the contemporary issues of informal sector.
Broad thematic areas of major social science disciplines: Political Economy, Theories and Contemporary History of Development
Development Economics
Indian Economy
Society and Politics in India Sociological and Political Theories.

Fine Arts (HUQP07)

Art History:
European Art HistoryIndian, Art History, Renascence in art, paintings painted during RenascencePost, renascence paintings, Painters in Indian and Europe, Biographies of European and Indian painters, Museums and Art Galleries of India
Fundamentals of Art:
Types and expressions, Painting from memory, painting an object, Calligraphy, types of fonts and medium.
Indian sculpture, Iconography in Indian and European Art Carving, tools and stones, Famous sculptures of India and Europe.
Printing Technology:
Lithography, offset, screen printing, inkjet and other methods of printing.Types of paper and paper sizes, Etching and methods of pattern transfer.

Geography (HUQP08)

Section I: Geomorphology
Solar system and the Earth - Origin of the earth: important theories - Earth's interior - Geologicaltime scaleEarth's Materials and minerals - Rocks classification and characteristics - Earth surface configuration - Order of landforms - Wegner's theory - Plate tectonics.
Endogenic processes: Folds, Fault, Dome and their resultant landforms - Earthquakes and Volcanic activities: causes, resultant landforms and world distribution.
Exogenic processes: Weathering, Mass wasting and resultant landforms - Formation of regolith and soilGeomorphic agents and processes: Fluvial, Glacial, Coastal, Arid and Karst landforms - Geomorphic hazards and their effects
Section II: Climatology
Elements of weather and climate – Composition and Structure of the Atmosphere - Head budgetAtmospheric pressure: Vertical and horizontal distribution - Winds and their causes of circulation - Types of planetary, Periodic and local winds - Temperature: factors and distribution - Temperature inversion
Atmosphere moisture: Humidity, evaporation and condensation - Hydrological cycle - Types, regional and seasonal distribution - Monsoon
Air masses and Fronts- Atmospheric disturbances: Tropical and Temperate cyclones- Anti- cyclones - ElNino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) - Recent climatic variability phenomenon
Climatic classification - Basis of Koppen's and Thornthwaite's classification - Role of climate in Human life - Atmospheric pollution and global warming: general causes and consequences
Section III: Oceanography
Surface configuration of the ocean floor - Hypsographic curve: continental self, continental slope, abyssal plain, trenches and deeps - Relief of Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans Distribution of temperature and salinity of oceans and seas - Circulation of oceanic waters, waves and currents - Currents of Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans - Tides: causes, types and
Marine deposits - Coral reefs: types and their formation - Costal environment - Ocean as store house of resources for the future
Section IV: Biogeography
Biosphere: Meaning and concept - Components of ecosystem and ecology-Biomes: World majorbiomes and their characteristics
Functions: Trophic levels, energy flows, cycles (geo-chemical, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen), food chain, food web and ecological pyramid
Human interaction and impacts - Environmental ethics - Environmental hazards and disasters (global warming, urban heat island, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, land degradation). Environmental policies - Environmental impact assessment
Section V: Physical Geography of India
Land of diversities - Geological structure - Physical features and divisions- Drainage pattern - Soil types and distribution - Natural vegetation
Climate: Seasons - Monsoon (origin, regional and seasonal variations) - Distribution of temperature and rainfall- Local winds
Mineral and power resources: Major types and their potential, distribution and production – Sources of non-conventional energy

Section V Geographic Thought
Nature and scope of geography - A brief historical overview of geography as a discipline – Branches of geography: general characteristics and inter-relationships Contributions of Greek, Roman, Arab, Chinese and Indian Scholars - Contributors for the development of modern geography- Recent Trends in Geography
Dualisms in geographic studies (physical vs. human, regional vs. systematic, qualitative vs. quantitative, ideographic vs. nomothetic) – Paradigm shift - Perspectives in geography (positivism, behaviouralism, humanism, structuralism, feminism and postmodernism)
Section VII: Population Geography
Division of mankind - Racial groups and culture: systems, characteristics and distribution - Human Adaptation to the environment - Adaptation in modern society - Globalization and culturalchange - Language, communication and belief

Distribution and density of population: Factors, growth and distribution- Population composition -Population theories - Health and wellbeing
Migration: Internal and international - Settlements: rural and urban - Urbanization process - Patterns and world distribution – Population policies
Electoral geography – Frontiers and Boundaries- Geopolitics and world order – Geopolitical conflicts
Section VIII: Geography of Resources
Nature and components of resources - Resources and environment interface - Classification of resources: renewable and non-renewable, biotic and abiotic resources Water, forests and soil resources: Types, distribution, economic and environmental significance - problems of deforestation, soil erosion and water pollution
Exploitation of natural resources - Impact of Human activities: deforestation, mining, agriculture and industrialization on environment- Population pressure and resources utilization - Population explosion and food security Environmental hazards: pollution and its related problems -Emerging environmental problems - Global warming - Environmental conservation, preservation, and
sustainable resource use.
Section IX: Economic Geography
Sectors of economic activity: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary - Favourable geographical conditions for different economic activities
Agriculture: Primary crops (wheat, rice and maize), commercial crops (cotton, sugarcane, tea, coffee, rubber) distribution and production - Livestock and Fisheries-Important fishing grounds
Mining economy: Factors governing the exploitation of minerals - World reserves and productionof Iron ore, Manganese, Bauxite and Copper
Fuel and power resources of the world - Distribution and production of coal, petroleum, hydroelectric power, atomic energy and non-conventional sources of energy
Manufacturing industries: Factors affecting location - growth and distribution of majorindustries - World production and distribution.
Nature and trends in the International trade - World trade of wheat, cotton, tea, coffee, petroleum, gold, silver, gems and jewelry.
Transport: Relative significance of different means of transport - Factors affecting land, water and air transport - World oceanic routes - Important inland waterways and important canals - Impact of globalization on world economy
Section X: Human Geography of India
Cultural landscape: Population growth, distribution and density - Population composition - Settlements and Urbanization
Agriculture: Major crops, impact of green revolution, Regionalization of Indian agriculture
Industrial development - Location and distribution of iron and steel, cement, cotton textile and sugar industry - Industrial Regions and their characteristics - Industrial Policies in India
Transport Networks (railways, roadways, waterways, airways and pipelines) - International Internal and External Trade (trend, composition and directions)
Regional development planning in India - Globalisation and its impact on Indian Economy- Changing nature of Indian economy - Socio-economic development - Impact of development on environment and natural resources
Section XI: Cartography
Elements of Map Science - Concepts of scale and map - Types of maps and scales - Constructionof graphic/linear scales - Enlargement and reduction of maps: methods and procedures - Map compilation and generalization.
General principles and classification of projections: construction, properties, limitations and uses of Zenithal, Conical and Cylindrical projections.
Methods of showing relief- (hachure, shading, and contours) - Contour interpolation - Profiles: drawing of profiles and their relevance in landforms mapping and analysis - Identification of different rocks-SOI Toposheets - Interpretation of physical and cultural topographic sheets.
Methods and instruments for collection of weather data - Construction of climograph and hythergraph, isotherm, isobars and isohyets - Preparation of weather maps-Symbols used in
weather maps - Interpretation of Indian daily weather maps. Mapping techniques of population, social, economic and cultural data - dot, isopleth, andchoropleth methods.
Section XII: Surveying Techniques
Basic principles of surveying - Types of surveying - Surveying instruments - Basic principles offield work- Techniques in physical and socio-economic field surveys- Data collection methods.
Chain and tape survey - Prismatic compass survey - Plane Table survey- Levelling techniques -Electronic surveying instruments (Theodolite and electronic devices)
Section XIII: Statistical Techniques
Statistical Methods: Frequency distribution and histograms - Measures of central tendency and dispersion - Diagrammatic representation of geographical and statistical data.
Sampling Techniques - Tests of significance - Probability distributions: normal, binominal andPoissonparametric and non-parametric tests-Correlation and regression.
Section XIV: Remote Sensing and GIS
Remote sensing principles - Types of remote sensing - Aerial photography-Satellite images - Application of Remote Sensing Techniques
Components and function of GIS - Spatial and non-spatial data - Vector and raster format - GIS analysis - Application of GIS Basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite System- Segments and applications.

History (HUQP09)

Ancient History of India (10000 BC to 1206 AD)
Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic age), Chalcolithic Age, Indus ValleyCivilization, Aryan & Vedic Age,State formation in Ancient
India, Rise of Ancient Indian Empire (Haryank, Shishunag, Nanda Dynasty),Age of Religion (Buddhism & Jainism), Mauryan Age (Social, Political and Culture), Post - Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas), Early State and Society in South India (Kharavela, Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age;
Administration, Economy, Art and Architecture). Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas (Administration, Society and Culture), Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami;Polity and Administration, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Shaiva religions. Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramours, Polity and Administration. Early Medieval India (750 AD- 1206 AD) Major political developments in Northern India, the rise of Rajputs;The Cholas: Administration, Village Economy and Society; Indian Feudalism; Agrarian economy and urban settlements;Trade and Commerce
Medieval History of India (1206-1707 AD)
Establishment of Delhi-Sultanate Rule (Mamulak, Khilji and Tughlaq dynasty),Administration of Delhi Sultanate (Military reform, Iqta system etc.), Art & Architecture Vijaynagar and Bahamani Kingdom (Rise, Social, Economic andAdministration), Bhakti Movement, Sufi Movement; Culture: Persian literature, Establishment of Mughal Empire (Administration, Society, Political and Literature), Expansion of Mughal Empire (Babar to Aurangzeb), Rise of Sur dynasty, Decline of Mughal Empire.
Modern History of India (1707 to 1947)
Modern Historiography, Colonialism in India, British Raj & British Expansion in India, Imperialism, Social and Cultural Development, Structure of British Administration (all Acts) Economic impact in British Period (Settlement), Industrialization, Social and Religious Reformmovement, (Ram Mohan Rai, Swami Dayanand, Jyoiba Phule etc.),
National movement in India, Mass Movement and British Rule, Indian National Congress Summit, Gandhian Movement,Constitutional Development, Struggle for Freedom. European History, French, England, American and Russian Revolution, World War First andSecond.

History of Art (HUQP10)

Pre-historic cave paintings: India and Europe
• Arts of the Indus Valley Civilization
• Mauryan and Shunga Sculpture
• Gupta and Kushana Sculpture
• Wall paintings of Ajanta and Bagh
• Pala-Sena Sculpture
• Pallava and Rashtrakutta Sculpture
• Orissam Sculpture
• Chandell Sculpture
• Traditions of manuscript painting: Eastern and Western Indian Trends
• Mughal Miniature Painting
• Deccani Miniature Painting
• Rajasthani Miniature Painting
• Pahari Miniature Painting
• Revival of Indian Art in Bengal and Bombay (Mumbai)
• Egyptian and Sumerian Art
• Greek and Roman Art
• Medieval Christian Art
• Renaissance-Italian Manifestation
• Broque-Painting and Sculpture
• Neo-classical and Romantic Art of France
• Impressionism, Post-Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism Fauvism, Cubism and Expressionism

Home Science (HUQP11)

Fundamental of food science, cookery, preservation, Food adulteration. Elementary knowledge of General, Organic and In-organic Chemistry and Bio-chemistry. Concept of Nutrition, deficiency diseases, physiology of human body, Human Energy, B.M.R. and community nutrition. Scientific basis for planning and preparation of therapeutic Diets and Diets for various physiological conditions.
Home Management Concept & principles of Home Management, Resources, Decision making, Time, Energy & Money Management, Work simplification, savings, Household purchases. Concept of interior and exterior decorations of House, Housing, Household Equipment, Consumer protection and Markets.
History of costumes in India. Selection of fabrics for various purposes. Family clothing, its construction and storage. Classification of textile fibers and its Chemistry. Fabric construction and its finished. Dying and laundering of fabrics.
Human physiology pre-school and school hygiene. Mortality and morbidity of children, Growth and development of children, various methods of child
study. Adjustment of children, marriage and family establishment, parent's education and mental health.
Needs, scope and philosophy of Extension Education, Method of Extension Education, Role of Audio-Visual aids in the teaching process, Community development programme its objective and history in relation to rural development.
Various National and International programmes for the upliftment of women and children and society at
Development of Educational Institutions and systems, Measurement and evaluation.
Adult Education, its history and importance in literacy programmed of India.
Panchayat Raj System in India.
Tools and techniques of Research and Elementary Statistics.

Philosophy (HUQP16)

Section: I - Metaphysics
1. Proofs for Existence of God
2. Free Will and Determinism
3. Self and No-self
4. Consciousness
5. Personal Identity
6. Substance and Qualities
7. Being and Becoming
8. Actuality and Potentiality
9. Appearance and Reality
10. Mind and Body Problem
11. Universals
12. Realism and Idealism
13. Essence and existence
Section: II- Epistemology
1. Theories of Truth
2. Theories of Error
3. Gettier Problem
4. Definitions of Knowledge
5. Knowledge by acquaintance and Knowledge by Description
7. Sources of Knowledge
8. Skepticism
9. Justification of Knowledge: Foundationalism, Anti-foundationalism, and Coherentism
10. Knowledge that and knowledge How
11. Problem of Induction
12. Apriori Knowledge
Section:III- Ethics
Questions will be from both Indian and Western philosophical perspective
1. Theories of Normative Ethics: Utilitarianism, Kantian Deontology, Virtue ethics, Social contract theory,
 care ethics
2. Theories of Metaethics: Relativism, Non-naturalism, Emotivism, Universal Prescriptivism,
3. Themes of Applied Ethics: Abortion, Euthanasia, Surrogacy, Capital punishment, Animal and
 Environment ethics
4. Thoughts of Indian ethical tradition: Nature of Dharma, Morksa, Purusharthas, Rina, and themes from
 Buddhist and Jaina ethics
Section: IV- Symbolic Logic
1. Inductive Logic
a. Analogical Reasoning
b. Causal Reasoning
c. Probability
2. Deductive Logic
a. Categorical proposition
b. Categorical syllogisms
c. Symbolic Logic
d. Methods of Deduction
e. Quantification Logic
3. Informal Fallacies: Indian and Western
4. Types of Arguments
Section: V- Social and Political Philosophy
1. Theories of Justice
2. Liberty and Equality
3. Democracy
4. Feminism
5. Global justice
6. Marginalization and Discrimination
7. Gandhi: Non-violence, Satyagraha, Swaraj, Nationalism, State
8. Ambedkar: Genesis of Caste and Annihilation of Castes
9. Tagore: Nationalism, Education and Religion of Man
10. Amartya Sen: Justice (Niti and Nyaya)

Political Science (HUQP18)

1. a. Western Political Philosophy:
 Plato
 Aristotle
 Machiavelli
 Hobbes
 Locke
 Rousseau
 J.S. Mill
 Karl Marx
 John Rawls
 b. Modern Indian Political Thought:
 Ram Mohan Roy
 Gandhi
 Ambedkar
 Savarkar
 Kautilya
c. Political theory:
 Concepts of liberty
 Equality
 Justice
 Sovereignty
 Citizenship and Gender
 Democracy human Rights, State
 Contemporary Issues
 Feminism Ideology
d. International Relations:
a. Realism & Liberalism
b. Cold War politics
d. India’s foreign policy particularly with China
e. Pakistan and USA.
e. Indian Government and Politics:
a. Preamble
b. Making of the Constituent Assembly
c. Constitutional Provisions
d. Parliament
e. Cabinet
f. Prime Minister
g. President
h. Fundamental Rights
i. Fundamental Duties
j. Directive Principles of State Policy
k. Amendments
l. Governor
m. State Government
n. Federalism
o. Political Parties (National and Regional)
p. Elections
q. Local Government
r. Judiciary
s. Governance
f. Comparative Government and Politics
a. Political Culture
b. Political Parties
c. Electoral Systems
d. Approaches/ Models
e. Types of Regimes
g. Public Policies in India
a. Models
b. Process
c. Types
2. General issues of contemporary relevance.
 Global Justice
 Nationalism
 Climate Change

Psychology (HUQP20)

Introduction to Psychology
2. History of Psychology
3. Schools of Psychology
4. Biological bases of Behavior
5. Learning, Memory
6. Sensation and Perception
7. Emotion and Motivation
8. Intelligence
9. Personality
10.Psychological Testing
11.Life-span Development
12.Abnormal and Clinical Psychology
13.Statistics for Psychology.

Sociology (HUQP22)

Basic Concepts in Sociology:
Sociology: Definition, nature and scope; Relationship with other Social Sciences: Psychology, Anthropology, History, Economics and Political Science.
Basic Concepts: Social Structure, Society, Social Organization, Community, Association,Norms, Values.
Status and Role: Types of status and role and their interrelationship
Socialization: Meaning, types, processes and agencies. Theories of self (Freud, Cooley andMead) Culture: Meaning, characteristics; material and non-material culture; cultural lag. Culture and civilization.

Social Processes and Problems:
Social Processes: Cooperation, Accommodation, Assimilation, Competition and Conflict.
Social Groups: Definition, characteristics, types (primary and secondary; in-group and out-group; Reference group and Peer group).
Social Institutions: Marriage; Family; Kinship Education, Religion and Economy: Meaning and Functions
Social Control: Meaning, Significance and agencies. Social Deviance: Meaning, characteristics, forms and factors.
Society, Culture and Social Change:
Societies: Types and Characteristics- Tribal, Rural, Urban, Industrial and Post-Industrial.
Culture: Definition and Nature; Types- Material and Non- Material. Socialization: Importance, Process and Stages. Social Control: Types and Means
Processes of Social Change: Characteristic Features of Industrialization, Modernization,Globalization and Secularization
Social Stratification: Types, theories of stratificationsocial mobility and its types
Indian Society:
• UNIT – I
Evolution of Indian Society: Traditional basis of Indian Society; Unity and Diversity in India;India as a Pluralistic Society.
Caste, theories of Caste system and its Changing Dimensions in India; Dominant caste.
Processes of Social Change in India: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization, Prophetization and Universalization
Social Issues and Problems: Gender Discrimination, Problems of Women; Problems of Dalits,OBCs and Minorities; Affirmative Actions.
Social Research:
• UNIT – I
Social Research: Definition, Nature and Purpose; Steps in Social Research; Problem of Objectivity and Subjectivity in Social Research
Research Methods: Research Designs; Social Survey; Hypothesis- Types & significance;Sampling and Sampling Procedure
Techniques of Data Collection: Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule and CaseStudy; Types of Data
Statistical Analysis and Use of Computer in Social Research: Classification and Tabulation ofdata; Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median and Mode; Use of Computers in SocialResearch.
Social Problems in India:
• UNIT – I
Social Problem: Meaning and Definition; Importance of the Study of Social Problems; Sociological Perspectives on Social Problem-Anomie and suicide (Durkheim) Labeling(Becker).
Structural Issues: Inequality of Caste, Class, Gender and Ethnicity
Problems and Issues: Female Feticide, Dowry, Domestic Violence, Divorce; Problems ofAged.
Social Disorganization: Crime, Juvenile Delinquency, Corruption, Communalism, Drug Addiction, Suicide, Nepotism, Prostitution and AIDS


CUET PG 2024 Exam Date Sheet

The following table shows the date of the CUET PG 2023, Subjects along with the shift in which, CUET PG 2023 examination is going to be conducted:

 As the CUET PG 2024 exam dates are not out yet, candidates preaparing for CUET PG 2024 examination can expect the dates somewhere around the dates mentioned below (CUET PG 2023 exam dates).


Shift 1- Exam Subjects

Shift 2- Exam Subjects

Shift 3- Exam Subjects


  • Jyotish(Falit)- Sanskrit only
  • BEd Languages
  • Public Health
  • Music- Percussion
  • Odia
  • Mathematics
  • Medical Laboratory Technology
  • Sahitya (Alankara varga)
  • Shukla Yajurveda (Sanskrit Only)
  • Commerce
  • Public Health
  • Painting
  • Nanoelectronics/Material
  • Science
  • Water Engineering and
  • Management

  • Hindu Studies (Bilingual)
  • Dance
  • French
  • Tamil
  • Civil, Structural & Transport
  • Engg.
  • Zoology


  • Rigveda (Sanskrit Only)
  • Vedanta, Sarvadarshan, Mimansa,Nyaya (Sanskrit Only)
  • Economics
  • Sports Physiology etc
  • Prayojanmoolak Hindi (Patrakarita)
  • Medical Laboratory Technology
  • Jain Darshan (Sanskrit Only)
  • Sahitya (Sanskrit Only) (BHU)
  • Disaster Studies
  • Applied Arts
  • Hispanic
  • Chemistry

  • Dharmashastra (Sanskrit Only)
  • Vyakarana & Sabdabodha Systems (Sanskrit Only)
  • Music - Karnatak
  • Bengali
  • Japanese
  • Urdu Journalism
  • Dairy Technology
  • Life Science


  • Phalita and Siddantha Jyotisha (Sanskrit Only)
  • BEd Languages
  • History
  • Kashmiri
  • Chemical thermal & Polymer Engineering

  • Dharma Shastra, Vastu, Paurohitya, Dharmashashtra
  • Pottery & Ceramics
  • Assamese
  • Khasi
  • Kokborok
  • Persian
  • Punjabi
  • Computer Science and
  • Information Technology

  • Krishna Yajurveda (Sanskrit Only)
  • English
  • Indo-Tibetan
  • Biochemistry


  • Dharma Vijnan
  • Yoga
  • Plastic Arts
  • Political Science
  • Rabindra Sangit
  • MPT
  • Statistics

  • Samveda (Sanskrit Only)
  • B.Ed
  • Pashto
  • Nanoscience

  • Puranetihas (Sanskrit Only)
  • General
  • Physical Education
  • Marathi
  • Pali
  • Santali


  • Shiksha Shastri B.Ed.
  • Agri-Business Management
  • LLM
  • M.Ed.
  • Chinese

  • Shiksha Shastri B.Ed.
  • Hindi
  • Linguistics
  • Food Engineering and
  • Technology

  • Vedanta (BHU) (Sanskrit Only)
  • Italian
  • Architecture
  • Environmental Sciences


  • Sociology
  • Sanskrit
  • Atmospheric Science

  • Korean
  • Malayalam
  • Manipuri
  • Electronics, Communication
  • and Information Engineering
  • Applied
  • Microbiology/Microbiology)
  • Soil Science - Soil & Water
  • Conservation

  • Anthropology
  • Korean
  • Soil Science - Soil & Water Conservation


  • MEd
  • Psychology

  • Indian Knowledge System ((Bilingual - Hindi and English)
  • History of Art
  • Sanskrit
  • Electrical, Power and Energy
  • Engineering
  • Botany

  • Art and Aesthetics
  • Arabic
  • Agricultural Science
  • Statistics


  • Jyotish (Ganit) (Sanskrit Only)
  • B.Ed. Humanities and Social
  • Sciences
  • Fine Arts
  • Material Science and Technology

  • Vyakaran (BHU) (Sanskrit Only)
  • Geography
  • Textile Engineering
  • Nanoscience
  • Animal Science (Poultry)

  • Shiksha Acharya MEd
  • Dev. and Labour studies
  • Fine Arts
  • Museology
  • Nano Science/Nano Technology
  • Agro-forestry
  • Physics


  • Geology
  • Earth Sciences

  • Applied Geography and Geoinformatics
  • Physical Education
  • Pharmacy

  • Applied Geography and Geoinformatics
  • Hospital Management
  • Philosophy
  • German
  • Forensic Science
  • Geophysics


  • Anthropology
  • Home Science
  • Linguistics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Bioinformatics

  • Ancient Indian History,
  • Culture & Arch.
  • Textile Design
  • Theatre
  • French
  • Telugu
  • Criminology

  • M A Education
  • Yoga
  • Geophysics
  • Plant Biotechnology
  • Atmospheric Science


  • Library & Information Science
  • Sports Physiology etc
  • Theatre
  • Nano Science/Nano Technology
  • Architecture
  • Biochemistry
  • Forensic Science
  • Dev. and Labour studies
  • Music - Hindustani
  • Water Engineering and Management
  • Food Science and Technology

  • Veda
  • BEd Mathematics
  • Hospital Management
  • Home science
  • Philosophy
  • Textile Design
  • Horticulture
  • Plant Biotechnology


  • Agri-Business Management
  • BEd Science
  • Dance
  • Russian
  • Urdu
  • Dairy Technology
  • Agama

  • Veda
  • Disaster Studies
  • Painting
  • Data Science, Artifical Intelligence, Cyber Security & Computer Science
  • M.A. Education
  • Social Work
  • Chinese
  • Agro-forestry


  • Nyaya Vaisheshika (Sanskrit
  • Only)
  • General (MBA etc)
  • Bhutia
  • Garo
  • Gujarati
  • Kannada
  • Lepcha
  • Limbu
  • Nepali
  • Prakrit


  • Geology; Earth Sciences
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • BEd Science 
  • History
  • Home Science
  • LLM
  • Electronics; Communication and Information Engineering
  • Museology
  • Art and Aesthetics
  • Microbiology/Applied Microbiology
  • BEd
  • Baudha Darshan / Buddhist Studies (Trilingual)
  • Physics 

  • Psychology
  • Food Science and Techn


  • B.Ed. Languages
    Architecture and Planning
    Hospital Management
  • Statistics
  • Nanoscience/Integrative Biosciences
  • Telugu
  • Food Engineering and Technology
  • Geophysics
  • Sahitya (Alankara and Kavya varga)
  • Malayalam
  • Fine Arts
  • Hindu Studies (Bilingual)
  • Linguistics
  • Italian
  • Urdu
  • Chinese
  • Veda
  • Soil Science- Soil & Water Conservation
  • Political Science
  • Criminology
  • Plastic Arts
  • Applied Arts
  • Hispanic
  • BEd
  • Mathematics
  • Shiksha Acharya MEd
  • Rabindra Sangeet
  • French
  • General (MBA etc)
  • Nepali
  • Agri- Business Management


  • Shiksha Shastri BEd  
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • General
  • History of Art
  • Forensic Science.
  • Manipuri
  • textile Design
  • Social Work
  • English
  • Sanskrit
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Material Science
  •  Ancient Indian History; Culture Arch.
  • Textile Engineering


  • Environmental Sciences/Studies 
  • Bioinformatics
  • Chemistry
  • MEd
  • Electrical; Power and Energy Engineering
  • Economics
  • Russian
  • Philosohy
  • Animal Science(Poultry)
  •  Mass Communication and Journalism 
  • Odia
  •  Medical Laboratory Technology 
  • Geography
  • Biochemistry
  • Painting


  • Nano Science/Nano Technology
  • Zoology
  • Korean
  • MA Education
  • Agro-forestry
  • Applied Geography and Geoinformatics
  • Public Health
  • Library and Information science
  • Data Science; Artificial Intelligence; Cyber Security & Computer Science
  • Anthropology
  • Botany
  • Computer Science; Information Technology 
  • Pharmacy
  • Russian
  • Theatre


  • Development and Labour Studies 
  • Horticulture
  • Life Sciences
  • Hindi


  • Sociology
  •  Mathematics
  •  Jyotish-Falit (BHU)
  •  Nanoelectronics/Material Sciencs
  •  Vyakarana & Sabdabodha Systems
  •  MPT
  •  Indian Knowledge System
  •  Civil; Structural & Transport Engg.
  •  Plant Biotechnology
  •  Music-Percussion
  •  B.Ed. Humanities and Social Sciences
  •  Commerce
  •  Vedanta (BHU)
  • Tamil
  •  Vedanta; Sarvadarshan; Mimansa;Nyaya
  •  Physical Education
  •  Jyotish-Ganit (BHU)
  • Yoga
  •  Water Engineering and Management
  •  Urdu Journalism
  •  Sports Physiology etc
  •  Dance
  •  Vyakaran (BHU)
  •  Dairy Technology 


CUET PG 2024 Syllabus: MTech

Here is the expected CUET 2024 examination syllabus for the courses which comes under MTech domain:

Chemical, Polymer and Thermal Engineering (MTQP01)

Unit 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors. Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line integral, Surface integral, Volume integral, Stokes’s theorem, Gauss’s theorem, Divergence theorem, Green’s theorem.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s equation, Euler’s equation, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, Residue theorem, Solution integrals. Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis
Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation
Unit 2: Thermodynamics and Process Calculation
Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase, multi-component, reacting and non-reacting systems. Use of tie components; recycle, bypass and purge calculations; Gibb’s phase rule and degree of freedom analysis. First and Second laws of thermodynamics. Applications of first law to close and open systems. Second
law and Entropy.

Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: Equation of State and residual p

roperties, properties of mixtures: partial molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients; phase equilibria: predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium.
Unit 3: Fundamentals of Polymer Science and Technology
Monomers, functionality, initiators, inhibitors, retarders, polydispersity conformation and configuration of macromolecules, stereo isomerism and tacticity in polymers, geometrical
isomerism. Polymer structure and properties: Crytalline and amorphous polymers, crystallinity, Basic determinants of polymer properties. Polymer chain flexibility. Structure-property relationship,
Factors affecting chain flexibility. Glass transition temperature and crystalline melting points. Factors affecting Glass transition temperature Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution,
molecular weight distribution curves, PDI, methods of molecular weight determination-end group analysis, colligative property measurements, light scattering, ultracentrifugation, viscometry etc.
Polymer fractionation techniques, GPC. Basic aspects of polymer synthesis, techniques of polymerization: mass, solution, suspension, emulsion and gas phase polymerization, mechanism and
kinetics of Radical/ chain polymerization, Mode of termination - chain transfer to monomer, initiator,
chain transfer agent, Inhibition & retardation. living and non-living chain polymerization, coordination polymerization, co-polymerization, ionic polymerization, ring opening polymerization .
Newer Techniques in Polymerization: Metathesis polymerization, Controlled polymerization methods, viz, Nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMD), Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization
(ATRP), Group Transfer Polymerization (GTP), Reversible Addition Fragmentation Termination Modification of polymers, cross-linking, polymer architecture, Applications and limitations of polymers, future prospects, Polymer viscoelasticity, rubber elasticity, polymer solutions.
Unit 4: Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations
Fluid statics, surface tension, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, transport properties, shellbalances including differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance, equation of continuity, equation of motion, equation of mechanical energy, Macroscopic friction factors, dimensional analysis and similitude, flow through pipeline systems, velocity profiles, flow meters,
pumps and compressors, elementary boundary layer theory, flow past immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds, Turbulent flow: fluctuating velocity, universal velocity profile and
pressure drop. Particle size and shape, particle size distribution, size reduction and classification of solid particles; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones; thickening and classification, filtration, agitation and mixing; conveying of solids.
Unit 5: Heat and Mass Transfer
Equation of energy, steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection and radiation, thermal boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients, boiling, condensation and evaporation; types of heat
exchangers and evaporators and their process calculations; design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single and multiple effect evaporators. Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies; stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts; design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquid-liquid extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification
and adsorption, membrane separations(micro-filtration, ultra-filtration, nano-filtration and reverse osmosis)
Unit 6: Process Control and Instrumentation
Measurement of process variables; sensors and transducers; P&ID equipment symbols; process modeling and linearization, transfer functions and dynamic responses of various systems, systems with inverse response, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves; transducer dynamics; analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response, controller tuning, cascade and feed forward control. First principles model development; dynamics of first, second and higher order linear systems, open loop and closed loop systems; linearization; feedback control; stability, Design of controller; dynamics of some complex processes; control valves and introduction to real time computer control of process equipment; cascade, feed forward, adaptive control, ratio control. Introduction to advance control strategies; Introduction to process instrumentation Process Flow Diagram (PFD), Actuators: Pneumatic Valve, Hydraulic actuator, Electric actuator; Sensors: Temperature Measuring Devices, Pressure Measuring Devices; Flow Measuring Devices.
Unit 7: Chemical Technology and Plant Design
Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chlor-alkali industry), fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP); natural products industries (Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Oil, and Fats);
petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers). Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and total annualized cost, cost indices, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash flow, optimization in process design
and sizing of chemical engineering equipments such as heat exchangers and multistage contactors.

Civil, Structural and Transport Engineering (MTQP02)

Unit 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors. Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line integral, Surface integral, Volume integral, Stokes’s
theorem, Gauss’s theorem, Divergence theorem, Green’s theorem.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s equation, Euler’s equation, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, Residue theorem, Solution integrals. Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis

Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation
Unit 2: Geotechnical Engineering
Soil Mechanics: Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability - one dimensional flow, Seepage through soils – two- dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping, capillarity, seepage force; Principle of effective stress and quicksand condition; Compaction of soils; One- dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Shear Strength, Mohr’s circle, effective and total shear strength parameters, StressStrain characteristics of clays and sand; Stress paths.
Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations - Drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories - Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – Finite and infinite slopes, Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s theory; Pressure bulbs, Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure;Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – dynamic and static formulae, Axial load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, pile under lateral loading, pile group efficiency, negative skin friction.
Unit 3: Water Resources Engineering
Fluid Mechanics: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications; Potential flow, Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks;
Concept of boundary layer and its growth; Concept of lift and drag.
Hydraulics: Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Channel Hydraulics - Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, uniform flow, gradually varied flow and water surface profiles.
Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, reservoir capacity, flood estimation and routing,
surface runoff models, ground water hydrology - steady state well hydraulics and aquifers;
Application of Darcy’s Law.
Irrigation: Types of irrigation systems and methods; Crop water requirements - Duty, delta, evapotranspiration; Gravity Dams and Spillways; Lined and unlined canals, Design of weirs on permeable foundation; cross drainage structures
Unit 4: Structural Engineering
Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Frictions and its applications; Centre of mass; Free Vibrations of undamped
SDOF system. Solid Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, Transformation of stress; buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
Structural Analysis: Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.
Construction Materials and Management: Construction Materials: Structural Steel – Composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete - Constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Project planning and network analysis - PERT and CPM; Cost estimation.
Concrete Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete beams. Steel Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections - simple and
eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Concept of plastic analysis -beams and frames.
Unit 5: Transportation Engineering
Transportation Infrastructure: Geometric design of highways - cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments. Geometric design of railway Track – Speed and Cant.
Concept of airport runway length, calculations and corrections; taxiway and exit taxiway design.
Highway Pavements: Highway materials - desirable properties and tests; Desirable properties of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible and
rigid pavement using IRC codes
Traffic Engineering: Traffic studies on flow and speed, peak hour factor, accident study, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental
relationships; Traffic signs; Signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections; Highway capacity.
Unit 6: Environmental Engineering
Water and Waste Water Quality and Treatment: Basics of water quality standards – Physical, chemical and biological parameters; Water quality index; Unit processes and operations; Water
requirement; Water distribution system; Drinking water treatment. Sewerage system design, quantity of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Effluent discharge standards;
Sludge disposal; Reuse of treated sewage for different applications.
Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution control, air quality standards, Air quality Index and limits. Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment anddisposal)
Unit 7: Geomatics Engineering
Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps - scale, coordinate system; Distance and
angle measurement - Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey;
Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing - Scale, flying
height; Basics of remote sensing and GIS.
Unit 8: Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering
Vibration and Measuring Instruments: Theory of vibration - Basic Definition - Governing equation for single degree freedom system - Forced vibrations. Rotating mass type excitation - Base
excitation - Isolation vibration measuring instruments. Seismology and earthquakes (basic concepts only), Quantification of earthquake, Intensity and magnitudes.
Ground Motion Parameters: Ground motion parameters, Estimation of Ground motion parameters, Waves in unbounded media, waves in a layered body, Attenuation of stress waves,
Seismic hazard analysis. Evaluation of Dynamic soil properties Wave Propagation and Analysis of Site Effects: Wave propagation Analysis - Site Amplification Need for Ground Response Analysis, Method of analysis, One Dimensional Analysis, Equipment linear Analysis site effects, Design Ground Motion, Developing Design Ground Motion.
Application of software package Shake-2000 Seismic Design of Footings and Walls: Seismic Design of Foundations, Retaining Walls & Slopes - Seismic design requirements for foundation, Seismic bearing capacity, Seismic settlement, Design loads. Seismic slope stability analysis - Internal stability and weakening instability, Seismic design of retaining walls: Dynamic response of retaining walls, Seismic displacement of retaining walls, Seismic design consideration.

Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, Cyber Security etc. (MTQP04)

1. Engineering Mathematics: Discrete Mathematics, Linear Algebra, Calculus, Statistics and Probability Set Theory & Algebra: Sets; Relations; Functions; Compositions of functions and relations,Group; Partial Orders; Boolean Algebra.
2. Theory of Computations: Finite Automata and Regular Expressions, on –determinism and NFA, Properties of Regular Sets, Context free grammar: Chomsky Normal Form (CNF), Griebach Normal Form (GNF), Push-down automata, Moore and mealy Machines, Turing machines.
3. Digital Logic: Number representations and computer arithmetic (Fixed and floating point), Logic functions, Minimizations, Design and synthesis of combinational and sequential circuits, A/D AND D/A CONVERTERS.
4. Computer Organization and Architecture: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and data –path, CPU control design, memory interface, I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode), Instruction pipelining, Cache and main memory, Secondary storage.
5. Microprocessors and interfacing: Instructions sets, addressing modes, Memory interfacing, interfacing peripheral devices, Interrupts. Microprocessor architecture, Instructions set and Programming (8085), Microprocessor applications, DMA, Interrupt and Timer.
6. Programming and Data Structures: Programming in C; Functions, Recursion, Parameter passing, and Definition of data structure. Arrays, Stacks, Queues linked lists, trees, priority queues and heaps, Binary search trees.
7. Algorithm: Algorithm concepts, Analyzing and design, asymptotic notations and their properties, Worst and average case analysis; Design: Greedy approach, Dynamic programming, Divide and
conquer; Tree and graph transversals, Spanning trees, shortest paths: Hashing, Sorting Searching.
8. Operating System: Main functions of operating systems, Processes, Threads, Interprocess communication, concurrency, Synchronization, Deadlock, CPU scheduling, I/O scheduling, Resource
scheduling. Deadlock and scheduling algorithms, banker’s algorithm for deadlock handling. Memory management and virtual memory. File Systems, I/O systems, DOS, UNIX and Windows.
9. Computer Networks: OSI Model, TCP/IP model, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Transmission media – twisted pair, coaxial cables fiber–optic cables, Flow and error control techniques, Routing algorithms, Congestion control, IP (v4), Application layer protocols (icmp, dns, smtp, pop, ftp,
http); Sliding window protocols; Internetworking: Switch /Hub, Bridge, Router, Gateways, Concatenated virtual circuits, Firewalls: Network Security; Cryptography- public key, secret key.
Domain Name System (DNS)-Electronic Mail and World Wide Web (WWW).
10. Artificial Intelligence: Basic concepts of AI; Intelligent agents; solving problems by searching – Uniformed search, Informed search; Logical agents; first order logic; knowledge representations.
11. Cryptography & Network security: Computer & network security concepts, Classical encryption techniques: Symmetric cipher model, Caesar Cipher, Playfair Cipher, Hill Cipher.
12. Data Science: Basic concepts; data, types of data–structured, unstructured; data representation,machine learning algorithms-supervised, unsupervised, reinforcement, clustering, classification and regression problems, data preprocessing, normalization, smoothing, visualization.

Electronics, Communication and Information Engineering (MTQP05)

Unit 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors. Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line integral, Surface integral, Volume integral, Stokes’s theorem, Gauss’s theorem, Divergence theorem, Green’s theorem.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s equation, Euler’s equation, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, Residue theorem, Solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis
Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.
Unit 2: Networks, Signals and Systems
Circuit analysis: Node and mesh analysis, superposition, Thevenin's theorem, Norton’s theorem, reciprocity. Sinusoidal steady state analysis: phasors, complex power, maximum power transfer. Time and frequency domain analysis of linear circuits: RL, RC and RLC circuits, solution of network equations using Laplace transform. Linear 2-port network parameters, wye-delta transformation.
Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform, sampling theorem and applications. Discrete-time signals: DTFT, DFT, z-transform, discrete-time processing of continuous-time signals. LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeroes, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, Adaptive Signal Processing
Unit 3: Electronic Devices
Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, equilibrium carrier concentration, direct and indirect band-gap semiconductors.
Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity, generation and recombination of carriers, Poisson and continuity equations. P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell, DC-biasing of Bipolar Junction Transistors, AC analysis of Bipolar Junction Transistors, Frequency Analysis of BJT and FET, Power Amplifiers
Unit 4: Analog and Digital Electronics
Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifiers; Amplifiers: biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers: characteristics and applications; single stage active filters, Active Filters: Sallen Key, Butterwoth, VCOs and timers, combinatorial and sequential logic circuits, multiplexers, demultiplexers, Schmitt triggers, sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters. Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, data-path and control unit, instruction pipelining.
Unit 5: Control and Automation
Mathematical modeling and representation of systems, Feedback principles, Block Diagram and signal flow graphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators, state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers, tuning of PID controllers and sizing of control valves, State space model, Solution of state equations of LTI systems.
Unit 6: Communications and Information Theory
Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems. Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers. Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem. Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK, QAM), bandwidth, inter-symbol interference, MAP, ML detection, matched filter receiver, SNR and BER. Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes, CRC. Shannon’s fundamental coding theorems, Differential entropy & mutual information for discrete & continuous ensembles, source coding, Rate distortion theory. Introduction to Algebra:Groups, fields, Binary field arithmatic, Basic properties of Galois field GF(2m ) and vector spaces. Channel coding and decoding: Run length limited codes, LBC, cyclic code, BCH code, convolutional code, Trellis coded modulation, ReedSolomon code.
Unit 7: Electromagnetic Theory and Wave Propagation
Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth. Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart. Rectangular and circular waveguides, light propagation in optical fibers, dipole and monopole antennas, linear antenna arrays.
Unit 8: IoT and Applications
Introduction to IoT, IoTECo system, Internet of Things definition evolution, smart IoT, IoT architecture, IoT and the cloud, Embedded prototyping: Embedded systems, Processor embedded in to system, Embedded hardware units and software system.
Internet Communications Protocols, IP,TCP,The IP Protocol Suite (TCP/IP), UDP ; IP Addresses:DNS, Static IP Address Assignment, Dynamic IP Address Assignment, IPv6, MAC Addresses; TCP and UDP Ports :An Example: HTTP Ports, Other Common Ports; Application Layer Protocols :HTTP , HTTPS; Encrypted HTTP, Performance, Libraries, Debugging.

Food Engineering and Technology (MTQP06)

Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition
Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & poly- saccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fiber, gelatinization and retro gradation of starch.
Proteins: classification and structure of proteins in food, biochemical changes in postmortem and tenderization of muscles.
Lipids: classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and polymorphism.
Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin.
Food flavors: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines.
Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and non- enzymatic browning.
Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, role of minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency diseases.
Chemical and biochemical changes: changes occur in foods during different processing.
Section 2: Food Microbiology
Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, sporesand vegetative cells, gram-staining. Microbial growth: growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique.
Food spoilage: spoilage microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cerealsand
their products.
Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens including Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and Aspergillus genera. Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles, soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.
Section 3: Food Products Technology
Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology, intermediate moisture foods.
Food pack aging and storage: packaging materials, aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage.
Cereal processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy, bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals.
Oil processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation. Fruits and vegetables processing: extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of fruit juice,
jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and puree, potato chips, pickles. Plantation crops processing and products: tea, coffee, cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils andoleoresins from spices.
Milk and milk products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice- cream, cheese and milk powder.
Processing of animal products: drying, canning, and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder.
Waste utilization: pectin from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling. Food standards and quality maintenance: FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in place (CIP)
Section 4: Food Engineering
Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number.
Heat transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers. Mass transfer: molecular diffusion and Fick’s law, conduction and convective mass transfer, permeability through singleand multilayer films.
Mechanical operations: size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation, settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid.
Thermal operations: thermal sterilization, evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing and crystallization.
Mass transfer operations: Psychometry, humidification and dehumidification operations.

Mechanical Engineering (MTQP07)

Unit 1: Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors. Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper
integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line integral, Surface integral, Volume integral, Stokes’s theorem, Gauss’s theorem, Divergence theorem, Green’s theorem.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s equation, Euler’s equation, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, Residue theorem, Solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, Median, Mode,Standard Deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative
methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.
Unit 2: Applied Mechanics and Design
Engineering Mechanics: Free-body diagrams and equilibrium; friction and its applications including rolling friction, belt-pulley, brakes, clutches, screw jack, wedge, vehicles, etc.; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies in plane motion; impulse and momentum (linear
and angular) and energy formulations; Lagrange’s equation. Mechanics of Materials: Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson's ratio; Mohr’s circle for plane
stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; concept of shear centre; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with
universal testing machine; testing of hardness and impact strength.
Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope.
Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts
Machine Design: Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the SN diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches, springs
Unit 3: Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences
Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, forces on submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential
equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; dimensional analysis; viscous flow of incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends and fittings; basics of compressible fluid flow. Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept and
electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler's charts; thermal boundary layer, dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, Stefan- Boltzmann law, Wien's displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors, radiation network analysis.
Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure substances, behaviour of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and
irreversibility; thermodynamic relations.
Applications: Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Air-standard Otto, Diesel and dual cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines; steam and gas turbines.
Unit 4: Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering
Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase diagrams, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials. Casting, Forming and Joining Processes: Different types of castings, design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design. Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder
metallurgy. Principles of welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding. Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining; basic machine tools; single and
multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes; principles of work holding, jigs and fixtures;
abrasive machining processes; NC/CNC machines and CNC programming. Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements;
comparators; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly; concepts of coordinate-measuring machine (CMM).
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools; additive manufacturing.Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning; lean manufacturing.
Inventory Control: Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems. Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.
Unit 5: Mechatronics and Industrial Robotics
Sensors and Drives: Sensor characteristics, different types of sensors and transducers, micro sensors, electrical contacts, actuators, and switches, signal processing devices; relays, output
devices. Drives: Electrical, Mechanical, Hydraulic & Pneumatic. Automatic Production and Assembly Machines: Transfer lines, Production and throughput, Buffer Storage Robot Kinematics & Gripper Mechanism : Role of robotics in automated manufacturing system, Robot anatomy. Robot classifications and specifications, Manipulation and Control. Robot
kinematics, forward and reverse transformation, homogeneous transformations. Fundamental Rotation matrices, Kinematic modeling of the manipulator, Denavit-Hartenberg Notation.
Robot Manipulators, Actuators and Drives : Robot vision and their interfaces, Machine Vision Applications. Welding, spray painting and finish coating, Parts Mating & Parts Joining Operations. Types of Robot Manipulators, Application of Robot Manipulators, Construction of a Robot
Robot Sensors and Robot Safety: Sensors in Robotics, classification of Robotic sensors, Acoustic
sensors Optical Sensors, Pneumatic Sensors. Touch Sensors, Force Sensors, Force Sensing Wrist
and its applications. Robot Planning and Installation, Robot Safety, Need of Robot Safety

FAQs Regarding CUET PG 2024 Syllabus

Q: Who sets the CUET PG 2024 syllabus?

A: CUET PG 2024 syllabus will be set by NTA for all the subjects.

Q: What is the level of the CUET PG 2024 syllabus?

A: Candidates can expect the CUET PG syllabus upto the level of graduation degree. For the preparation of CUET PG aspirants can refer their graduation subjects thoroughly in order to ace the exam. 

Q: How many total questions will be there in the CUET PG 2024 exam?

A: Candidates can refer the following table for the structure of CUET PG question paper



Number of Questions


Language Comprehension/Verbal Ability, General Test (GK, QA, Analytical Skills)



Domain knowledge


Candidates must note that the Language Comprehension/Verbal Ability section is compulsory. The General Test also has to be taken by candidates opting for all test papers except Education (PGQP01).

Q: How many papers can be selected in a slot.

A: Only one paper can be selected in one slot.

What is the Medium of Paper?

A: 1. The CUET -2023 was Bilingual-English and Hindi or specific language where required.
    2. The Question Paper will be in Sanskrit only for Acharya, Shiksha Shastri and Shiksha Acharya Courses.
    3. Further in case of Shiksha Shastri and Shiksha Acharya the entire 100 questions of the question paper would be in Sanskrit language only.

Q: Who will determine the final merit list for Admission? How would be the results declared?

A: NTA will generate the Score Card only. After that the admission exercise (including counselling) shall be handled by the participating University officials only.
Scores and candidate data would be shared with the Universities where the applicant has applied. 

Q: Where can I get the CUET syllabus?

A: The CUET syllabus for various subjects can be downloaded in PDF format here on this page for free. Candidates can also refer to the CUET Samarth website to check and download the CUET 2024 website for the entire gamut of subjects and syllabus.

Q: What are the types of questions asked in the CUET 2024 exam?

A: The CUET questions are objective and carries multiple choices (MCQs).

Q: Is it compulsory to attempt all the sections of the CUET 2024 question paper?

A: While the Section I and Section II, consisting of the language and domain-wise questions are compulsory to attempt. On the other hand, the third section consisting of General Knowledge and aptitude questions is not compulsory to attempt unless it is the requirement of the programme the candidate has applied for.

Q: Does CUET PG syllabus change every year?

A: Changing the syllabus of CUET PG depends upon the examination authority. However, the chances are very less.The applicants of CUET PG 2023 can download and check the previous year's detailed syllabus of their applied programme in this page itself.

Q: How to Crack CUET UG 2024 Examination?

A: Here are the few tips:

  • candidates should go through the exam pattern and structure of the test.
  • students should get hold of some of the best books for CUET PG preparation.
  • After completing the syllabus, they should take regular mock tests and analyse their performance. Solving previous years’ question papers will also expose them to the topics and question types to expect in the actual exam.

Q:   How to Crack CUET PG 2024 Examination?


Here are the few tips:

  • Candidates should go through the exam pattern and structure of the test.
  • Create a monthly timetable on how much material to cover on a daily basis.
  • students should get hold of some of the best books for CUET PG preparation.
  • After completing the syllabus, they should take regular mock tests and analyse their performance. Solving previous years’ question papers will also expose them to the topics and question types to expect in the actual exam.

Q:   What is the difficulty level of CUET PG exam?


The CUET PG exam difficulty level is depicted in the range of moderate to high. CUET PG examination is conducted into various streams and master's subjects, therefore it is difficult to say the difficulty level of the examination subject wise. However, the difficulty level of the exam varies from subject to subject. 

The difficulty level of the exam also differs from subject to subject. As compared to the other national level entrance exam like IIT JAM, ISI Admission Test, GATE-B, IISER Entrance exam, JEST, NEST examination, the level of CUET PG examination is comparatively low-level. Candidates can expect the high difficulty level of the examination in comparison to State level entrance examinations like- GNDU, UPCATET, SHIATS, MCAER-CET, RUASAT, OUAT.

Q:   Does CUET PG syllabus change every year?


Changing the syllabus of CUET PG depends upon the examination authority. However, the chances are very less.The applicants of CUET PG 2024 can download and check the previous year's detailed syllabus of their applied programme in this page itself.

Factors upon which CUET PG syllabus might change:

  • One of the most important reason because of which CUET PG syllabus might change is dependent upon any changes made under NEP- New Education Policy by Ministry of Education.
  • Changes made by UGC, Master of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in the master's degree programme might alter the CUET PG syllabus.
  • NTA (National Testing Agency), the examination conducting body for CUET PG Examination can change if the exam authorities feel the signficance of adding some important topics in the syllabus to ameliorate the holistic approach of the students towards the subject. 

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Answered 2 days ago

No, you cannot present a digital copy of your CUET PG admit card in place of the original at the exam centre. The CUET PG admit card is a required document that acts as confirmation of your eligibility and permits you to sit for the exam. You will not be permitted to enter the exam centre or take th


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

Answered 2 days ago

The CUET PG admit card is released by the National Testing Agency. NTA is also the exam conducting authority of the CUET PG exam. Earlier, till 2020 the CUET PG (CUCET) admit card was released by Central Univesity of Rajasthan. After the formation of NTA in 2019 all the rights to conduct the CUET PG


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

Answered 2 days ago

The CUET PG admit card is important for several reasons:

It is a mandatory document for entry into the examination hall. Without the admit card, candidates will not be allowed to take the exam. It contains important information about the candidate, such as their name, roll number, exam date, time, an


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

Answered 2 days ago

There is no fixed number of previous year question paper to solve by a candidate for the preparation of CUET PG Exam. The number of sample papers that a candidate should solve depends on their individual preparation, strengths, and weaknesses. However, it is advisable for candidates to solve as many


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

Answered 2 days ago

No, candidates are not allowed to take the CUET PG question paper or any other exam-related material outside the examination hall after the Computer Based Test (CBT) is over.

The CUET PG question paper is the property of the National Testing Agency NTA and it is not meant to be shared or circulated.


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

Answered 2 days ago

It is advisable to start solving CUET PG question papers as part of your exam preparation at least 4-5 months before the exam date. This will give you sufficient time to practice and revise the concepts you have learned and develop a strategy for time management and improving your speed and accuracy


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

Answered 2 days ago

CUET PG previous year's question papers are important for several reasons. Some of the reasons are mentioned below:

a) To Get Familiar with Exam Pattern: Solving the previous year's question papers helps candidates to get familiar with the exam pattern, types of questions, and difficulty level of the


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

Answered 2 days ago

There are 75 questions asked in Section 2 of the CUET PG exam. This section contains domain-specific questions on the subject that you have chosen.

For example, if you have chosen the subject of English Literature, then Section 2 will contain questions on topics such as British Literature, American L


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

Answered 2 days ago

There are "25 questions" asked in Section 1 of the CUET PG exam. This section is compulsory for all candidates and consists of questions on General English, General Hindi, General Knowledge and Reasoning Ability.

The General English questions will test your understanding of grammar, vocabulary, and c


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

Answered 2 days ago

The facilities provided at the CUET PG exam center may vary from one center to another, but generally, the following facilities are provided:

a) Seating Arrangements: The examination hall is equipped with desks and chairs for the candidates to sit and write the exam.

b) Computer Systems: The CUET PG e


Manisha Kumari

Contributor-Level 10

138 Institutes accepting CUET-PG

M.Sc. in Applied Microbiology
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    Value for Money

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M.Sc. in Microbiology
  • 2 years
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M.Sc. in Environmental Sciences
  • 4.3





    Faculty & Course Curriculum


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  • |
  • Total Fees: ₹ 432
  • |
  • 2 years
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  • Full Time
M.Sc. in Biotechnology
  • 4.4





    Faculty & Course Curriculum


    Crowd & Campus Life


    Value for Money

  • |
  • Total Fees: ₹ 14,900
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  • 2 years
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