What is Microcomputer?

What is Microcomputer?

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Chanchal Aggarwal
Senior Executive Content
Updated on Jul 17, 2023 14:07 IST

A microcomputer is a small, self-contained computer system that includes a microprocessor, memory, storage, and input/output devices. It is designed for personal or small-scale use, offering individuals and small businesses the power of computing in a compact form factor.


Do you know we use Microcomputers uncountable times in our day-to-day lives? You must be reading this article on your laptop, mobile or tablet, right? These are all a microcomputer. We live in a world where devices surround us. MicroComputers are small yet powerful devices that have transformed how we live, work and spend our time. They provide unparalleled computing power in a compact and portable package. 

Doesn’t matter whether you are a professional or a homemaker; you use microcomputers in multifarious ways. So, let’s understand the meaning of microcomputers and how these tiny machines are revolutionising the face of computing. 

Definition of Microcomputer

A micro-computer is a small and relatively inexpensive computer with a central processing unit (CPU) made up of a microprocessor. The computer also includes Micro and input and output (I/O) circuity. It is a complete computer utilized on a small scale and designed for a single person.

Suggested read: Difference Between Microprocessor and Microcontroller

Microcomputers are the outmoded name for personal computers (PC) or devices based on a single-chip microprocessor. Common microcomputers include laptops and desktops. Apart from these standard PCs, microcomputers include calculators, mobile phones, notebooks, workstations and embedded systems.

These tiny machines are smaller than a mainframe or minicomputer. A microcomputer utilizes a single combined semiconductor chip for its Central Processing Unit (CPU). Read-Only Memory (ROM) and Random Access Memory (RAM) are the two types of memory these types of computers use. Input/output (I/O) ports, and a bus or system of interconnecting wires, are all housed in a single unit, generally known as a motherboard

Must read: Difference Between RAM And ROM

Applications of Microcomputer

Home and personal use: Microcomputers are commonly used in households for personal use, such as browsing the internet, creating and editing documents, watching videos, and playing games.

Education: Educational institutions widely use microcomputers for teaching, research, and administration. They are used to create and deliver educational content, facilitate online learning, and manage student records.

Business and office use: Microcomputers are used in offices for various tasks, such as creating and editing documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and databases, as well as for communication and networking.

Scientific and engineering applications: Microcomputers such as simulations, data analysis, and control systems are used in scientific and engineering applications.

Entertainment: Microcomputers are used in the entertainment industry for tasks such as music and video production, gaming, and virtual reality.

Healthcare: Microcomputers are used in healthcare for tasks such as managing patient records, medical imaging, and telemedicine.

Industrial control systems: Microcomputers are used in industrial control systems for process control, automation, and monitoring tasks.

Embedded systems: Microcomputers are used in various embedded systems, such as consumer electronics, automotive systems, and home automation systems.

Also read: Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer

Advantages of Microcomputer


Microcomputers can vary in terms of cost depending on the user’s requirement. They are mainly suitable for the single person and made affordable so that a maximum number of people can use them. However, some microcomputers are expensive and suitable for high-level functions and programmes.


Devices such as smartphones, laptops, and tablets are portable. Therefore, the audience can access any information at any point in time. The nature of the size, build, and weight enables users to see the content wherever and whenever they like. 

Energy Efficiency

Microcomputers require less power than larger computers, making them more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly.

Rapid Advancements

Microcomputers are constantly evolving, with new technologies and features being introduced regularly. This ensures that microcomputers remain relevant and useful for a long time.

Increased Productivity

Microcomputers allow users to work more efficiently and effectively, with features such as word processing, spreadsheets, and presentation software all designed to help users get more done in less time.

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Disadvantages of MicroComputer


The performance of these computers is relatively low when compared with the main frame or supercomputers. Tasks requiring high computational power, such as running highly demanding applications or playing high-end games, are impossible. 


Your device works with the help of the internet, which is vulnerable to various security threats. Your device can be hacked or exposed to several threats leading to data damage. Also, sharing personal information such as name, email, or mobile numbers on social media sites can lead to data leakage. Additionally, users should not share their financial data, such as debit/card details. 


Microcomputers can be used in various ways, for example, browsing social media sites, playing games, watching movies, etc. Using them for these purposes can be addictive and time-consuming. Having these devices at home can make users even more addicted. 

Storage Capacity

The default storage of microcomputers is very less. Users must purchase external storage space or customize their PC to enhance their capacity.  

Inappropriate Content

As we know, everything has pros and cons same goes well with these types of electronic devices. Countless content is available online, but not everything is appropriate for a particular user base. Therefore, children may be exposed to irrelevant content unsuitable for their age. 

Health Issues

The excessive use of these tiny computers can cause health problems and other issues for people. The prolonged use can cause physical problems such as headaches and neck, shoulder, and back pains. While working on them, users neglect physical activities, which may lead to obesity. Also, blue rays reflected by these microcomputers can lead to eye strain and eyesight issues. 

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What is a microcomputer?

A microcomputer is a small, self-contained computer system that includes a microprocessor, memory, input/output devices, and a user interface. It is designed for personal or small-scale use.

What are the components of a microcomputer?

A microcomputer typically consists of a central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), storage devices (such as hard drives or solid-state drives), input devices (like keyboards and mice), output devices (such as monitors or printers), and a motherboard to connect these components.

What are some examples of microcomputers?

Common examples of microcomputers include desktop computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, and single-board computers like the Raspberry Pi. These devices are designed for personal or individual use.

What operating systems are used in microcomputers?

A: Microcomputers can run various operating systems, including Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS, and Android, depending on the specific device and its intended use.

How do microcomputers benefit individuals and small businesses?

Microcomputers offer individuals and small businesses access to computing power, productivity tools, communication capabilities, and the ability to run various software applications. They enhance efficiency, facilitate collaboration, and enable personalized computing experiences.

About the Author
Chanchal Aggarwal
Senior Executive Content

Chanchal is a creative and enthusiastic content creator who enjoys writing research-driven, audience-specific and engaging content. Her curiosity for learning and exploring makes her a suitable writer for a variety ... Read Full Bio