Difference Between Balance Sheet And Income Statement

Difference Between Balance Sheet And Income Statement

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Rashmi
Rashmi Karan
Manager - Content
Updated on Nov 6, 2023 16:59 IST

The main difference between a balance sheet and an income statement is that the balance sheet provides a snapshot of a company's financial position at a specific point in time, while the Income Statement summarizes a company's financial performance over a specific period, typically a month, quarter, or year. Learn about concepts of income statement and balance sheet, and explore difference between income statement and balance sheet.

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Business owners must know the difference between income statement and balance sheet to use the available data effectively. But while these two documents provide different sets of information, they are often misunderstood and confused. Both income statements and balance sheets play a crucial role for banks and investors since they offer a strong indication of a company’s financial health. A balance sheet is a snapshot of a company’s financial position at a specific point, while an income statement reflects a company’s revenues and expenses over a specific period.

Must Read – What is Finance?

Balance Sheet vs. Income Statement

Balance Sheet Income Statement
Details a company’s assets and liabilities over a certain period. Details revenues and expenses over a period of time (usually a year).
Made up of three elements, assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity. Determines whether or not a business shows net income.
Used to see if a business has sufficient liquidity to pay off debts. Helps to track the results of spending decisions.

Let us understand these differences basis different parameters.

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Performance Indication 

The balance sheet does not indicate a company’s performance. It just represents how the company is using its resources. On the other hand, the income statement gives a much clearer picture of the company’s performance at a given time.

Time

The balance sheet is more of a snapshot. It reflects what a company owns and owes. On the other hand, the income statement shows the total income and expenses during the defined period.

Reporting 

A balance sheet reports assets, liabilities, and equity. In contrast, the income statement presents information about cash flow, including income and expenses.

Usage 

Another key difference between balance sheet and income statement is how companies use them. Balance sheet help in determining if a business has sufficient assets to meet its financial obligations. An income statement helps to assess the performance of a company and solve financial issues if any.

Creditworthiness 

Another key difference between balance sheet and income statement is how they affect creditworthiness. Lenders use the balance sheets to decide about resource utilization and determine if more credit needs to be extended. Income statements help lenders to check if the company is making sufficient money to pay its obligations.

Metrics

Items mentioned on the balance sheet can be compared to obtain the liquidity of a business. The subtotals on an income statement are compared to sales to determine the –

  • Gross margin percentage
  • Operating income percentage 
  • Net income percentage 
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Similarities Between an Income Statement and a Balance Sheet

Both balance sheets and income statements are important financial statements that detail the financial accounting of a company. Though they are different they do share some similarities at some level, as listed below.

  • Both documents help evaluate a company’s performance.
  • Both documents reflect a company’s financial status at a given time.
  • Both documents are prepared using the same accounting principles.
  • Both documents provide important financial information used by investors, creditors, and other stakeholders to make informed decisions.
  • Both documents are crucial for a company’s financial reporting.
  • Both documents are published regularly, usually quarterly or annually.
  • Both documents determine a company’s profitability and financial stability.

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What is a Balance Sheet?

A balance sheet comprises three elements: assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity. It details the financial health of the company at a given point in time rather than over a period of time. A company’s assets must equal its liabilities and share capital. A balance sheet helps to determine the current financial situation of a company to make important financial decisions.

It is presented in a two-column format, where the asset column is usually kept on the left side, and the liability column is kept on the right. A balance sheet shows what a company has and owes on a specific day. It is the set of assets, rights and obligations of said company. Analyzing the balance of a company allows one to identify the funds (capital of the company and undistributed profits) that aid in the company’s operations and inform about the latest purchases of machinery and their amortizations, as well as to know their short and long-term financing.

Must Read – The Difference Between Assets and Liabilities

What is an Income Statement?

An income statement is a financial statement that shows you the company’s income and expenditures. It lists a company’s income and expenses over a period. It records revenues as credits and expenses as debits. The income statement is often called the profit and loss (P&L) statement and can be run at any time during the fiscal year to determine profitability.

The income statement determines whether or not a business shows net income. If revenue and income are greater than expenses and losses, the company will show a net profit or profit and thus be profitable. Conversely, if revenue and income are less than expenses and losses, the company is operating at a net loss and is not profitable.

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Conclusion

The balance sheet is typically much more detailed than the income statement. It requires a complete inventory of all the assets and liabilities a company has on its books at any given time. The income statement lists income and expenses for a set period, but at the end of the reporting period, those accounts are reset to zero.


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Rashmi Karan
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Rashmi is a postgraduate in Biotechnology with a flair for research-oriented work and has an experience of over 13 years in content creation and social media handling. She has a diversified writing portfolio and aim... Read Full Bio

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