ISRO Full Form: Indian Space Research Organization

ISRO Full Form: Indian Space Research Organization

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Vikram
Vikram Singh
Assistant Manager - Content
Updated on Aug 31, 2023 10:31 IST

What is ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) – It is the primary space agency that was established in 1969 by the Government of India, and it is responsible for the nation’s space program and conducts research in space science and planetary exploration. ISRO achieves a major milestone by successfully placing the Chandrayan – 3 to the south pole of moon.

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What is the Full Form of ISRO, and What is it?

The full of ISRO in English is:

I – Indian 

S – Space 

R – Research 

O – Organization.

It is the primary space agency of the Government of India, which is responsible for the nation’s space program and conducts research in space science and planetary exploration. ISRO was established in 1969 by renowned Physicist and Industrialist Dr Vikram Sarabhai. Till then, it has been at the forefront of space research and exploration, contributing significantly to our understanding of the universe and our places within it.

Over the years, ISRO has developed and launched numerous satellites for communication, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, etc.

Recent Developments: Chandrayan – 3

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Chandrayaan-3 Basics:

  • It’s a moon mission by India’s space agency, ISRO.
  • It launched on July 14, 2023, from Sriharikota, India.
  • The mission had a lander and a rover that landed on the moon on August 23, 2023.

Previous Missions:

  • Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2 were India’s first two moon missions.
  • Chandrayaan-2’s lander didn’t land safely. Chandrayaan-3 aimed to fix that mistake.

Names and Meanings:

  • The lander’s name was Vikram, after the founder of India’s space program.
  • The rover’s name was Pragyan, which means “wisdom” in Sanskrit.

Mission Details:

  • They landed in the Moon’s South Pole area, a place no other country has explored.
  • The main goal was to check the South Pole for water ice.
  • They also studied the moon’s surface, atmosphere, magnetic field, and radiation.

Outcome:

  • Chandrayaan-3 was a big win for ISRO.
  • The successful landing and experiments give valuable moon insights.
  • This mission shows India’s growing space skills and will motivate more space missions.

Major Specification of Chandrayan – 3 Lander

  • Mission life: 1 Lunar day (14 Earth days)
  • Mass: 1749.86 kg, including Rover
  • Power: 738 W (Winter solstice)
  • Payloads : 3
  • Dimensions (mm3): 2000 x 2000 x 1166
  • Communication: ISDN, Ch-2 Orbiter, Rover
  • Landing site: 69.367621 S, 32.348126 E

Major Specification of Chandrayan – 3 Rover

  • Mission Life: 1 Lunar day
  • Mass: 26 kg
  • Power: 50 W
  • Payloads: 2
  • Dimensions (mm3) : 917 x 750 x 397
  • Communication: Lander

The Timeline of Chandrayan-3

2023_08_chandrayan-3-timeline-1.jpg
  • July 14, 2023: Chandrayan-3 spacecraft launched with LVM3 M4 vehicle.
  • August 1, 2023: Chandrayan-3 inserted into translunar orbit.
  • August 5, 2023: Lunar Orbit achieved at 164 km x 18,704 km.
  • August 17, 2023: Separation of Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover from the propulsion system.
  • August 18, 2023: Deboosting operation lowers landing module’s orbit to 113 km x 157 km.
  • August 23, 2023: Vikram Landar touchdown south part of the moon at 6:04 PM IST.

Significant Milestones of ISRO

  • In 1975, 6 years after its establishment, ISRO launched its first satellite, ‘ Aryabhata’.
  • In 1980, ISRO successfully launched its first satellite into orbit using an indigenous launch vehicle, SLV-3, making India the sixth country to reach space.
  • 2008, the launch of Chandrayan-1 was India’s first mission to the moon.
    • 2019- Chandrayan-2
    • 2023- Chandrayan-3
  • 2013, ISRO raised its bar and became the first Asian country to reach the moon and the first nation in the world to do so in the first attempt.
  • 2023, With the landing of Chandrayan-3, India becomes first country to land on south pole of the moon.

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ISRO: Then & Now

Year Milestones and Achievements
1962 Jawaharlal Nehru established the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). Vikram Sarabhai was appointed as Chairman.
1963 India’s first rocket launch from Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS).
1969 ISRO was officially established.
1975 Launch of Aryabhata, India’s first satellite.
1980 Launch of Rohini, the first Indian satellite to reach orbit, by an Indian-made launch vehicle (SLV-3).
1984 Rakesh Sharma becomes the first Indian to travel to space aboard Soyuz T-11.
1992 ISRO successfully launches its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for the first time.
1994 ISRO successfully launches its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for the first time ISRO sets up Antrix Corporation, its commercial arm.
2001 The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) is launched.
2008 Launch of Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to the Moon.
2013 Launch of Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan), making ISRO the fourth space agency to reach Mars and the first Asian nation to do so.
2017 ISRO sets a world record by launching 104 satellites on a single rocket (PSLV-C37).
2019 Launch of Chandrayaan-2, India’s second mission to the Moon.
2023 Launch of Chandrayaan-3, India’s third mission to the Moon.

Organization Structure and Facilities of ISRO

ISRO has many facilities and centres across India, but here are a few major facilities:

  • ISRO Headquarters: Located in Bengaluru, Karnataka, this is the administrative centre of ISRO.
  • Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC): Located in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, VSSC is the main centre for developing satellite launch vehicles and sounding rockets.
  • Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR: Located in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, this is the primary launch centre for ISRO. The site is used for launching satellite-carrying vehicles into space.
  • Space Applications Centre (SAC): Located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, SAC is responsible for the development, testing, and operation of India’s indigenous satellites.
  • ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC): Located in Bengaluru, Karnataka, ISAC is the main centre for building satellites and developing satellite technology.
  • Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC): LPSC has facilities in Valiamala, near Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, and Bengaluru, Karnataka. It is responsible for developing liquid and cryogenic propulsion systems for satellites and launch vehicles.
  • National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC): Located in Hyderabad, Telangana, NRSC is responsible for remote sensing satellite data acquisition and processing, data dissemination, aerial remote sensing, and more.
  • Physical Research Laboratory (PRL): Located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, PRL is a National Research Institute for Space and allied sciences, supported mainly by the Department of Space, Government of India.
  • Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS): Located in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, IIRS is a premier institute for training and education in Remote Sensing, Geoinformatics and GPS Technology.
  • Master Control Facility (MCF): MCF has facilities in Hassan, Karnataka, and Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. It is responsible for the post-launch operations of satellites.

List of ISRO Chairman

ISRO Chairman Tenure
Dr Vikram Sarabhai From 1963 to 1971
Prof. M.G. K. Menon From Jan 1972 to Sept 1972
Prof. Satish Dhawan From 1972 to 1984
Prof. U.R. Rao From 1984 to 1994
Dr. K. Kasturirangan From 1994 to 2003
G. Madhavan Nair From 2003 to 2009
Dr. K. Radhakrishnan From 2009 to 2014
Dr. Shailesh Nayak From 2015 to 2015
A. S. Kiran Kumar From 2015 to 2018
Dr K. Sivan From Jan 2018 to Jan 2022
S Somanath 12 Jan 2022 –

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FAQs

What is the full form of ISRO?

The full form of ISRO is Indian Space Research Organization.

Who is considered the founding father of the Indian Space Programme?

Dr. Vikram A Sarabhai is the founding father of the Space program in India.

When was ISRO formed?

ISRO was formed on August 15, 1969.

What is the main objective of ISRO?

The prime objective of ISRO is to develop space technology and its application to various national needs.

Where are the Satellites made?

Satellites are made at U R Rao Satellite Centre (URSC), Bangalore.

Where did the Space Programme begin in India?

Indian Space Programme began at Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) located at Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram.

Why was Thumba Selected for being a rocket launching station?

The geomagnetic equator of the earth passes over Thumba.

When was the first rocket launched in India? Which was the rocket?

The first rocket, a Nike Apache, procured from the US, was launched on November 21, 1963.

How many centres are there in ISRO?

There are six major Centres and several other Units, Agencies, Facilities, and Laboratories spread across the country.

Which is the first launch vehicle of India?

Satellite Launch Vehicle-3 (SLV-3) is the first launch vehicle of India.

Which is the first Indian Satellite?

Aryabhata is the first Indian satellite.

About the Author
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Vikram Singh
Assistant Manager - Content

Vikram has a Postgraduate degree in Applied Mathematics, with a keen interest in Data Science and Machine Learning. He has experience of 2+ years in content creation in Mathematics, Statistics, Data Science, and Mac... Read Full Bio