UGC NET Syllabus 2023 for Paper 1 & 2: Download PDF

University Grants Commission National Eligibility Test 2023 ( UGC NET )

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Registration: 30 Sep '23 - 28 Oct '23

Dewesh Nandan Prasad

Dewesh Nandan PrasadAssociate Senior Executive

Updated on Sep 19, 2023 14:52 IST

UGC NET syllabus 2023: University Grants Commission (UGC) prescribes the syllabus for both June and December cycles. The NTA/UGC will soon publish the UGC NET syllabus for the December 2023 cycle on the website. The syllabus, however, will remain unchanged for the UGC NET 2023 December cycle if there is no revision or update by the NTA/UGC. In any instance, the NTA shall issue a formal notification along with the modified syllabus if the UGC NET curriculum is updated for any subject(s). 

The UGC NET syllabus is divided into two sections that are- UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023  and UGC NET Paper 2 Syllabus 2023. The UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus is common for all the aspirants who are going to take the UGC NET exam 2023. However, the UGC NET paper 2 syllabus varies for different subjects. Paper 2 carries subject-specific questions in which the aspirants specialise. Paper 1 carries 50 whereas Paper 2 carries 100 MCQs which have to be solved within the time limit of 3 hours.

Understanding the Papers 1 and 2 UGC NET 2023 syllabus is the initial stage in exam preparation. To adequately study for the exam, candidates need to be familiar with the most recent UGC NET exam pattern and syllabus. To ascertain candidates' eligibility for the position of Assistant Professor and/or Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) in Indian universities and colleges, the UGC NET 2023 exam will be administered for 83 subjects. 



UGC NET Paper 1 & 2 Syllabus

The UGC NET syllabus for both Papers 1 and 2 was revised by the NTA in June 2019. There has been no change in the UGC NET syllabus for all 83 subjects since 2019. The only change is the addition of the new subject 'Hindu Studies' for UGC NET Paper 2 in 2022.

Q:   What is the UGC NET syllabus for 2023?

The UGC NET syllabus is divided into two sections that is Paper 1 and Paper 2. Paper 1 is common for all the candidates for any subject whereas the Paper 2 exam is subject specific which comprises the questions from the subject that the candidates opt to appear for the exam. The list of topics that is asked in the UGC NET Paper 1 exam has been given below for the candidates: a)Teaching Aptitude b) Research Aptitude c) Maths d) Reasoning e) Communication f) Data Interpretation g) Environmental Studies, etc. For the syllabus of UGC NET Paper 2 the candidates can refer to the link given below for the candidates:

Q:   Who prescribes the UGC NET syllabus?

The University Grants Commission (UGC) prescribes the UGC NET syllabus for all papers and subjects. Any change made in the syllabus is announced by the UGC on its official website. The announcement is made through the notification that is released in the PDF format. The notification will be released for the specific subject whose syllabus is changed. The notification will contain all the information that is added or renewed like which subject syllabus has been changed, what are the topics that has been added and more. Recently, the Cultural Studies has been added to the English syllabus for the UGC NET exam.

Q:   Where can I check the UGC NET syllabus?

You can check the UGC NET syllabus on the official website of the exam UGC NET. NTA. Nic. In. To check the syllabus the steps has been given below for the candidates: a) Go to the official website b) Go to the syllabus section c) Search for the subject d) Click on the link e) PDF will appear for the specific subject However, the UGC NET syllabus for all the subjects have been provided in the page above. The candidates can download the syllabus for the subjects from

UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2023

UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus 2023 comprises topics from General Paper on Teaching and Research Aptitude, which is common and mandatory for all candidates. Check the complete UGC NET Syllabus for Paper 1 below.

Unit-I: Teaching Aptitude

  • Teaching: Concept, objectives, levels of teaching (memory, understanding, and reflective), characteristics, and basic requirements
  • Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (academic, social, emotional and cognitive), individual differences
  • Factors affecting teaching related to Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment, and Institution
  • Methods of teaching in higher learning institutions: Teacher-centred vs learner-centered methods; offline vs online methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs, etc.).
  • Teaching support system: Traditional, modern, and ICT based
  • Evaluation systems: Elements and types of evaluation, evaluation in Choice Based Credit Systems in higher education, computer-based testing, innovations in evaluation systems

Unit-II: Research Aptitude

  • Research: Meaning, types, and characteristics, positivism and post-positivistic approach to research
  • Methods of research: Experimental, descriptive, historical, qualitative and quantitative methods
  • Steps of research
  • Thesis and article writing: Format and styles of referencing
  • Application of ICT in research
  • Research ethics

Also Read: UGC NET Exam Date 2023

Unit-III: Comprehension

  • A passage of text is given. Questions are asked from the passage which needs to be answered.

Unit-IV: Communication

  • Communication: Meaning, types, and characteristics of communication
  • Effective communication: Verbal and non-verbal, inter-cultural and group communications, classroom communication
  • Barriers to effective communication
  • Mass-media and society

Unit-V: Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude

  • Types of reasoning
  • Number series, letter series, codes, and relationships
  • Mathematical aptitude (fraction, time & distance, ratio, proportion and percentage, profit and loss, interest and discounting, averages etc.)

Unit-VI: Logical Reasoning

  • Understanding the structure of arguments: Argument forms, the structure of categorical propositions, mood and figure, formal and informal fallacies, uses of language, connotations, and denotations of terms, the classical square of opposition
  • Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning
  • Analogies
  • Venn diagram: Simple and multiple uses for establishing the validity of arguments
  • Indian Logic: Means of knowledge
  • Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension)
  • Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference)


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Unit-VII: Data Interpretation

  • Sources, acquisition and classification of data
  • Quantitative and qualitative data
  • Graphical representation (bar-chart, histograms, pie-chart, table-chart and line-chart) and mapping of data
  • Data interpretation
  • Data and governance

Unit-VIII: Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

  • ICT: General abbreviations and terminology
  • Basics of Internet, Intranet, E-mail, Audio and Video-conferencing
  • Digital initiatives in higher education
  • ICT and Governance

Unit-IX: People, Development and Environment

  • Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals
  • Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on the environment
  • Environmental issues: Local, regional and global; air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution, waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), climate change and its socio-economic and political dimensions
  • Impacts of pollutants on human health
  • Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests
  • Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies
  • Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance

Also Read: UGC NET English Syllabus 2023

Unit-X: Higher Education System

  • Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India
  • Evolution of higher learning and research in post-independence India
  • Oriental, conventional and non-conventional learning programmes in India
  • Professional, technical and skill-based education.
  • Value education and environmental education
  • Policies, governance, and administration

UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus PDF: Download

The candidates who are preparing for the UGC NET exam can check the PDF for the UGC NET Paper 1 syllabus. The PDF can be downloaded and can be used while preparing for the exam. The Paper comprises 10 units and holds a total of 100 marks in the UGC NET exam. The PDFlink has been given below for the candidates:

UGC NET 2023 Syllabus PDF Link: Download Here

UGC NET Teaching Aptitude Syllabus 

The teaching aptitude section is designed to measure the teaching tendency of a candidate. The questions are based on pedagogy and classroom-based activities. The complete syllabus of teaching aptitude has been given below:

  • Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding, and Reflective), Characteristics, and basic requirements.
  • Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional, and Cognitive), Individual differences.
  • Factors affecting teaching related to Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment, and Institution.
  • Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher-centered vs. Learner-centered methods; offline vs. Online methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs, etc.).
  • Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern, and ICT-based.
  • Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of Evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher Education, Computer-based Testing, Innovations in evaluation systems

UGC NET Research Aptitude Syllabus

The research aptitude section is taken to measure the tendency and knowledge of the candidates which will be used while doing the PhD. The syllabus for the UGC NET Research Aptitude has been given below for the candidates:

  • Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post-positivist approach to research.
  • Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative, and Quantitative Methods.
  • Steps of Research.
  • Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing.
  • Application of ICT in research.
  • Research ethics

UGC NET Communication Syllabus

The UGC NET communication syllabus is designed to test the communication knowledge of the candidates. The syllabus of the UGC NET communication syllabus has been given below for the candidates:

  • Communication: Meaning, types, and characteristics of communication.
  • Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication
  • Barriers to effective communication
  • Mass-Media and Society
  • Prepare for Competitive Exams with Expert Tips on English Section

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Also Read:

UGC NET Paper 2 Syllabus PDF: Free Download

UGC NET Paper 2 exam is subject-specific and based on the subjects chosen by the candidate. Paper 2 comprises 100 questions that hold two marks for each correct answer. The maximum mark in Paper 2 is two hundred. The candidates have to start preparing for the paper 2 exams from their university days as paper 2 is for specialisation. The candidates have to choose the subject that they have studied in their post-graduation for paper 2. The PDF for UGC NET Paper 2 syllabus has been given below for the candidates.

Download Subject Wise UGC NET Paper 2 Syllabus PDF

The subject for UGC NET Paper 2 needs to be chosen by the candidate. A candidate can choose the subject of his/her post-graduation or a related subject. NTA UGC NET is conducted for a total of 83 subjects. Click on the PDF links below to check the UGC NET Paper 2 syllabus for all 83 subjects.

UGC NET Paper 2 Subject List

Subject Code

Syllabus PDF

Economics/Rural Economics/Co-operation/Demography/Development Planning/Development Studies/Econometrics/Applied Economics/Development Eco./Business Economics


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Political Science


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Social Work


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Defence and Strategic Studies


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Home Science


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Public Administration  


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Population Studies


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Management (including Business Admn. Mgt./ Marketing/ Marketing Mgt./ Industrial Relations and Personnel Mgt./ Personnel Mgt./ Financial Mgt./ Co-operative Management)


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French (French Version)


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Adult Education/ Continuing Education/ Andragogy/ Non Formal Education


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Physical Education


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Arab Culture and Islamic Studies  


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Indian Culture


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Labour Welfare/ Personnel Management/ Industrial Relations/ Labour and Social Welfare/ Human Resource Management


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Library and Information Science


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Buddhist, Jaina, Gandhian and Peace Studies


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Comparative Study of Religions


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Mass Communication and Journalism


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Performing Art - Dance/ Drama/ Theatre


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Museology & Conservation  


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Tribal and Regional Language/ Literature       


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Folk Literature


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Comparative Literature


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Sanskrit traditional subjects (including) Jyotisha/ Sidhanta Jyotish/ Navya Vyakarna/ Vyakarna/ Mimansa/ Navya Nyaya/ Sankhya Yoga/ Tulanatmaka Darsan/ Shukla Yajurveda/ Madhav Vedant/ Dharmasasta/ Sahitya/ Puranotihasa /Agama)


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Women Studies 


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Visual Art (including Drawing & Painting/ Sculpture/ Graphics/ Applied Art/ History of Art)


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Social Medicine & Community Health


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Forensic Science


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Computer Science and Applications  


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Electronic Science


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Environmental Sciences


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Politics including International Relations/ International Studies including Defence/ Strategic Studies, West Asian Studies, South East Asian Studies, African Studies, South Asian Studies, Soviet Studies, American Studies  


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Human Rights and Duties  


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Tourism Administration and Management  


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Hindu Studies


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Also Read: UGC NET exam pattern 2023

Q:   What is UGC NET syllabus for English?

UGC NET syllabus for English comprises the following topics: Paper 1 Syllabus Teaching Aptitude Research Aptitude Communication Higher education Mathematical Reasoning Logical Reasoning Data Interpretation Reading Comprehension People and Environment Information & Communication Technology Paper 2 English . Syllabus Drama Poetry Fiction, short story Non-Fictional Prose Language:Basics concepts, theories and pedagogy English in India: History, Evolution and Futures Cultural Studies Literary Criticism Literary Theory post world war II Research Methods and Materials in English.

Q:   What is UGC NET. What are the benefits of qualifying it?

UGC NET stands for University Grant Commission- National Entrance Test. The exam is biannually held in June (3rd week) and December (3rd week) conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education on behalf of UGC. UGC NET exam is essentially required for pursuing higher order research in University departments/Institutes of National Importance/National Laboratories and Institutes of CSIR in various fields of Science & Technology. Those who qualify UGC NET exam are awarded either a JRF or Lectureship on qualifying the NET exam. Eligibility for UGC-NET/JRF exam Indian citizens, who are residing in India are only eligible for the award of UGC/CSIR-NET/JRF fellowships. Candidates who have secured an M.Sc or equivalent degree with 55% marks for general category and 50% marks for SC/ST, Physically and Visually Handicapped candidates and Ph.D. degree holders who had passed Master’s Degree prior to 19th September 1991 are eligible. Age Limit For the award of JRF, the minimum age limit is 19 years and the maximum age limit is 28 years, which is relaxable by 5 years in case of candidates belonging to Schedule Castes/Schedule Tribes/OBC, Physically Handicapped/Visually Handicapped and female applicants. For the award of LS (NET) (Lecturer ship), there is no upper age limit. Benefits of Qualifying CSIR NET/JFR UGC/CSIR LS (NET) qualification is now mandatory for coaching in any University/college in India. Students who qualify as JRF are also eligible for lectureship. Moreover, JRF qualification is considered more prestigious as JRF qualified students are entitled to a monthly stipend of 25,000 p. m. for a period of two years. On Completion of two years as JRF and if the fellow is registered for Ph.D. the fellowship is upgraded to SRF (NET) and the stipend is increased to Rs. 28,000/- p. m for the 3rd and subsequent years.
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Q:   I have not cleared the UGC NET exam. Can I appear for the exam again?


Yes you can definitely appear for the UGC NET exam again If you did not clear it in the first attempt. The UGC NET exam is conducted twice a year by the National Testing Agency (NTA) for the selection of Assistant Professor and award for Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) in various Indian Universities and Colleges. 

There is no limit on the number o attempts that you can makefor the UGC NET exam. However, you have to fulfill the eligibility criteria for the exam, which include having master's  degree with at least 55 per cent marks (50 per cent for reserved categories) or equivalent from the UGC recognised University. The age eligibility for the UGC NET exam has been given below for the candidates:

Candidates applying for the Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) should not be more than 30 years of age as on the first day of the month in which the UGC NET 2023 exam concludes. 

UGC NET JRF Age Limit Relaxation 2023

Relaxation of JRF age criteria is given to SC, ST, OBC, PwD, women, and other category candidates. Have a look at the age relaxation for the reserved categories below. 


Age Relaxation (in years)

SC/ST/OBC/PwD/Third Gender


Females of all categories


Candidates having research experience

Limited to the period spent on research

(Maximum of 5 years)

Candidates holding LLM degree


Candidates in armed forces

(subject to the length of service in the armed forces)



UGC NET Subject Wise Syllabus 2023

The candidates preparing for the UGC NET exam 2023 must go through the detailed syllabus of the subject that they are appearing for. The detailed subject-wise syllabus has been given for the candidates in the article below. The detailed syllabus will help the candidates to make a strategy for the UGC NET December cycle exam. 

UGC NET History Syllabus 2023

While preparing for the UGC NET 2023 exam, candidates should have detailed knowledge regarding their subject. So, here we have mentioned UGC NET topic-wise syllabus in the table below.

Topic Name

Important Units

Unit 1: Negotiating the Sources

Archaeological sources

Indus/Harappa Civilization

Expansion of State system

Vedic and later Vedic periods

Pastoralism and Food Production

Unit 2: From State to Empire

Dissolution of Empire and Emergence of Regional Powers

Salankayanas and Visnukundins in Andhradesa

Harsha and his Times

Gupta Vakataka age

From State to Empire

Unit 3: The emergence of Regional Kingdoms

Kingdoms in Deccan, South India, Eastern India, Western India, North India

Characteristics of Early Medieval India

Trade and urbanization

Growth of Brahminical religions

Debates of state formation in Early Medieval India

Unit 4: Source of Medieval Indian History

Rise of the Marathas & the foundation of Swaraj by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

Source of Medieval Indian History

The Vijayanagara and the Bahmanis

Foundation of the Mughal Empire

Later Mughals and Disintegration of the Mughal Empire

Unit 5: Administration & Economy

Administration & Economy

Sher Shah’s Administrative Reforms

Administrative System in the Deccan

Frontier Policies under Delhi Sultanate and Mughals

Inter-State Relations during the Sultanate and the Mughals

Unit 6: Society and Culture

The Saints of the Medieval Period

The Sufis

The Sikh Movement

Bhakti Movement

Development of Education, Fine Arts

Unit 7: Sources of Modern Indian History

Sources of Modern Indian History

Rise of British Power

Establishment and Expansion of British Dominion in India

British Relations with the Principal Indian States

Revolt of 1857

Unit 8: Colonial Economy

Colonial Economy

Expansion and Commercialization of Agriculture

British Industrial Policy

Modernization of Indian Languages and Literary Forms

Indian Society in Transition

Unit 9: Rise of Indian Nationalism

Swadeshi and Swaraj

Birth of the Indian National Congress

B.R. Ambedkar

Gandhian Mass Movements

India after Independence

Unit 10: Historical Method, Research, Methodology, and Historiography

Scope and Importance, Objectivity and Bias in History

Recent Trends in Indian History

Beginnings of Historical Writings – Greek, Roman, and Church

Renaissance and its Impact on History Writing

Post–Modernism in History

Also Read: UGC NET 2023 History Detailed Syllabus

UGC NET 2023 English Syllabus

The candidates can check the UGC NET 2023 syllabus for the English subject below in the table. The most recent update is the addition of 'Cultural Studies' in 2019 as Unit VII in the syllabus:

UGC NET English Syllabus Units   UGC NET English Syllabus Section  

Unit I 


Unit II 


Unit III 

Fiction and Short Story 

Unit IV 

Non-Fiction Prose  

Unit V 

Language: Basic Concepts, theories and pedagogy, English in Use 

Unit VI 

English in India: history, evolution, and future  

Unit VII 

Cultural Studies 

Unit VIII 

Literary Criticism 

Unit IX 

Literary Theory post World War II 

Unit X  

Research Methods and Materials in English 


UGC NET Political Science Syllabus

The candidates who are willing to appear for the UGC NET exam in 2023 for the December cycle can check the syllabus for Political Science below:

Unit 1: Political Theory 

  • Political Traditions
  • Liberalism
  • Conservatism
  • Socialism
  • Marxism
  • Feminism
  • Ecologism
  • Multiculturalism
  • Postmodernism

Unit 2: Political Thought 

  • Confucius, Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt, Frantz
    Fanon, Mao Zedong, John Rawls

Unit 3:  Indian Political Thought

  • Dharmashastra, Kautilya, Aggannasutta, Barani, Kabir, Pandita Ramabai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Swami Vivekanand, Rabindranath Tagore, M.K Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, Muhammad Iqbal, M.N.Roy, V D Savarkar, Dr. B.R.Ambedkar, J L Nehru, Ram Manohar Lohia, Jaya Prakash Narayan, Deendayal Upadhyaya

Unit 4: Comparative Political Analysis 

  • Approaches: Institutional, Political Culture, Political Economy and New, Institutionalism; Comparative Methods
  • Colonialism and decolonisation: forms of colonialism, anti-colonial struggles and decolonisation
  • Nationalism: European and non-European
  • State theory: the debate over the nature of the state in capitalist and socialist societies; post-colonial state; welfare state; globalization and nations-states
  • Political regimes: democratic (Electoral, Liberal, Majoritarian and Participatory) and non-democratic regimes (Patrimonialism, Bureaucratic authoritarianism,
    Military dictatorship, Totalitarianism, and fascist)
  • Constitutions and Constitutionalism: forms of constitutions, rule of law, judicial independence and liberal constitutionalism; emergency powers and the crisis of
  • Democratisation: democratic transition and consolidation
  • Development: Underdevelopment, Dependency, Modernization, World Systems, Theory, development and democracy
  • Actor and Processes: Electoral Systems, Political Parties, and Party Systems, Interest groups, Social movements, new social movements, Non-Governmental
    Organisations (NGOs) and civil society campaigns; Revolutions

Also Read: UGC NET Political Science Syllabus 

Unit 5: International Relations

  • Approaches to the study of International relations: Idealism, Realism, Structural, Marxism, Neoliberalism, Neorealism, Social Constructivism, Critical International
    Theory, Feminism, Postmodernism 
  • Concepts: State, state system and non-state actors, Power, Sovereignty, Security: traditional and non-traditional
  • Conflict and Peace: Changing Nature of Warfare; Weapons of mass destruction; deterrence; conflict resolution, conflict transformation
  • United Nations: Aims, Objectives, Structure, and Evaluation of the Working of UN; Peace and Development perspectives; Humanitarian intervention. International law; International Criminal Court
  • Political Economy of IR; Globalisation; Global governance and Bretton Woods system, North-South Dialogue, WTO, G-20, BRICS
  • Regional Organisations: European Union, African Union, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ASEAN
  • Contemporary Challenges: International terrorism, Climate change and Environmental Concerns, Human Rights, Migration and Refugees; Poverty and Development; Role of Religion, Culture and Identity Politics

Unit 6: India’s Foreign Policy

  • Perspectives on India’s Foreign Policy: India’s Identity as postcolonial, development, rising power, and as emerging political economy
    Continuity and change in India’s Foreign Policy: Principles and determinants; Non-Alignment movement: historical background and relevance of Non Aligned
    Movement; India’s Nuclear Policy India’s relations with major powers: USA, USSR/Russia, People’s Republic of China
  • India’s Engagement with the multipolar world: India’s relations with European Union, BRICS, ASEAN, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, African Union, Southern African Development Community, Gulf Cooperation Council
  • India’s relations with neighbourhood: SAARC, Gujaral doctrine, Look East/ Act East, Look WestIndia’s Negotiation Strategies in International Regimes: The United Nations, World Trade Organisation, International Monetary Fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    Contemporary challenges: maritime security, energy security, environmental security, migrants and refugees, water resources, international terrorism, cyber security

Also Read: UGC NET History Syllabus 2023 

Unit 7: Political Institutions in India

  • Making of the Indian Constitution: Colonialism heritage and the contribution Indian National Movement to the making of the Indian Constitution
  • Constituent Assembly: Composition, Ideological Moorings, Constitutional Debates
  • Philosophy of the Constitution: Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles
  • Constitutionalism in India: Democracy, Social Change, National Unity, Checks and Balances, Basic Structure Debate, Constitutional Amendments
  • Union Executive: President, Prime Minister and Council of Ministers
  • Union Parliament: Structure, Role and Functioning, Parliamentary Committees
  • Judiciary: Supreme Court, High Court, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism, Judicial Reform.
  • Executive and Legislature in the States: Governor, Chief Minister, State Legislature
  • Federalism in India: Strong Centre Framework, Asymmetrical Federal Provisions and Adaption, Role of Intergovernmental Coordination Mechanisms, Inter-State
    Council, Emerging Trends
  • Electoral Process and Election Commission of India: Conduct of Elections, Rules, Electoral Reforms
  • Local Government Institutions: Functioning and reforms
  • Constitutional and Statutory Bodies: Comptroller and Auditor General, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Human Rights, National Commission for Women, National Commission for Minorities

Unit 8: Political Processes in India

  • State, Economy and Development: Nature of Indian State, Development Planning model, New Economic Policy, Growth and Human Development
  • Process of globalisation: social and economic implications
  • Identity Politics: Religion, Tribe, Caste, Region, Language
  • Social Movements: Dalit, Tribal, Women, Farmers, labour
  • Civil Society Groups: Non-Party Social Formations, Non-Governmental Organisations, Social Action Groups
  • Regionalisation of Indian Politics: Reorganisation of Indian States, States as Political and Economic Units, Sub-State Regions, Regional disparities, Demand
    for the New States
  • Gender and Politics in India: Issues of Equality and Representation
  • Ideology and Social basis of Political Parties: National Parties, State Parties
  • Electoral Politics: Participation, Contestation, Representation, Emerging trends

Unit 9: Public Administration

  • Public Administration: meaning and evolution; public and private administration
  • Approaches: System Theory, Decision Making, Ecological Approach
  • Public administration theories and concepts: Scientific Management Theory, Rational Choice theory, New Public Administration, Development Administration, Comparative Public Administration, New Public Management, changing nature of Public Administration in the era of liberalisation and Globalisation
  • Theories and Principles of Organization: Scientific Management Theory, Bureaucratic Theory, Human Relations Theory 
  • Managing the organization: Theories of leadership and motivation
  • Organisational Communication: Theories and Principles, Chester Bernard Principles of Communication, Information Management in the organization
  • Managing Conflict in the Organization: Mary Parker Follett
  • Management by Objectives- Peter Drucker

Unit 10: Governance and Public Policy in India

  • Governance, good governance and democratic governance, role of state, civil society and individuals
  • Accountability and control: Institutional mechanism for checks and balances, legislative control over the executive, administrative and budgetary control, control through parliamentary committees, judicial control over legislature and executive, administrative culture, corruption and administrative reforms
  • Institutional mechanisms for good governance: Right to Information, Consumer Protection Act, Citizen Charter; Grievance redress system: Ombudsman, Lokpal, Lokayukta
  • Grassroots Governance: Panchayati Raj Institutions and their functioning
  • Planning and Development: Decentralised planning, planning for development, sustainable development, participatory development, e-governance; NITI Aayog
  • Public policy as an instrument of socio-economic development: public policies with special reference to housing, health, drinking water, food security, MNREGA, NHRM, RTE
  • Monitoring and evaluation of public policy; mechanisms of making governance process accountable: jansunwai, social audit

UGC NET Computer Science and Application Syllabus

The paper 2 syllabus for NTA UGC NET Computer Science and Application has been given below for the candidates. The candidates can check the syllabus to make their strategy for the upcoming exam:

Unit 1: Discrete Structures and Optimization

  • Mathematical Logic
  • Sets and Relation
  • Graph Theory 
  • Optimisation 
  • Counting, Mathematical Induction, and Discrete Probability

Unit 2: Computer System Architecture

  • Digital Logic Circuits and Components 
  • Data Representation 
  • Basic Computer Organisation and Design
  • Register Transfer and Micro Operations

Unit 3: Programming Languages and Computer Graphics

  • Language Design and Translation Issue
  • Elementary DataTypes 
  • Object Oriented Programming 
  • 2-D Geometrical Transforms and Viewing
  • 3-D Object Representation, Geometric Transformations, and Viewing

Unit 4: Database Management Systems

  • Database System Concepts and Architecture
  • SQL
  • Data Warehousing and Data Mining
  • Normalisation for Relational Databases
  • NoSQL

Unit 5: System Software and Operating System

  • System Software
  • Basics of Operating Systems
  • Threads, CPU Scheduling
  • Process Management
  • Storage Management

Unit 6: Software Engineering

  • Software Process Models
  • Software Design
  • Estimation and Scheduling of Software Projects
  • Software Configuration Management
  • Software Quality

Unit 7: Data Structures and Algorithms

  • Performance Analysis of Algorithms and Recurrences
  • Data Structures
  • Graph Algorithms
  • Complexity Theory
  • Advanced Algorithms

Unit 8: Theory of Computation and Compilers

  • Theory of Computation
  • Context-Free Language
  • Unsolvable Problems and Computational Complexity
  • Regular Language Models
  • Code Generation and Code Optimization

Unit 9: Data Communication and Computer Networks

  • Data Communication
  • World Wide Web (WWW)
  • Functions of OSI and TCP/IP Layers
  • Mobile Technology
  • Network Security

Unit 10: Artificial Intelligence (AI)

  • Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)
  • Genetic Algorithms (GA)
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Knowledge Representation
  • Multi-Agent Systems

UGC NET Economics Syllabus

The candidates who are going to appear for the upcoming exam for UGC NET Economics exam must go through the entire syllabus before start preparing for the exam. The economics comprises 10 units. The UGC NET economics syllabus has been given below for the candidates:

Unit 1: Micro Economics 

  • General Equilibrium Analysis
  • Theory of Production and Costs 
  • Factor Pricing
  • Decision-making under uncertainty attitude towards risk
  • Theory of Consumer Behavior

Unit 2: Macro Economics 

  • National Income: Concepts and Measurement
  • Consumption Function 
  • Determination of output and employment 
  • Investment Function 
  • Inflation and Phillips Curve Analysis 

Unit 3: Statistics and Econometrics 

  • Probability Theory 
  • Sampling methods & Sampling Distribution 
  • Linear Regression Models and their properties 
  • Statistical Inferences, Hypothesis testing 
  • Descriptive Statistics 

Unit 4: Mathematical Economics 

  • Differential Calculus and its Applications 
  • Static Optimization Problems and their applications 
  • Difference and Differential equations with applications
  • Sets, functions and continuity, sequence, series 
  • Linear Algebra–Matrices, Vector Spaces 

Unit 5: International Economics 

  • International Trade: Basic concepts and analytical tools 
  • Theories of International Trade 
  • Trade Policy Issues; GATT, WTO, and Regional Trade Blocks 
  • International Trade under imperfect competition 
  • Exchange Rate: Concepts and Theories 

Unit 6: Public Economics 

  • Market Failure and Remedial Measures 
  • Regulation of Market 
  • Public Budget and Budget Multiplier 
  • Public Debt and its management 
  • Fiscal Policy and its implications 

Unit 7: Money and Banking 

  • Components of Money Supply 
  • Capital Market and it's Regulation 
  • Commercial Banking 
  • Instruments and Working of Monetary Policy 
  • Non-banking Financial Institutions 

Unit 8: Growth and Development Economics 

  • Economic Growth and Economic Development
  • Theories of Economic Development 
  • Indicators of Economic Development
  • Models of Economic Growth 
  • Technical progress 

Unit 9: Environmental Economics and Demography 

  • Concepts and Measures: Fertility, Morbidity, Mortality 
  • Age Structure, Demographic Dividend 
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis, and Compensation Criteria 
  • Valuation of Environmental Goods 
  • Market Failure 

Unit 10: Indian Economy 

  • Economic Growth in India: Pattern and Structure
  • Indian Finance Commissions and Centre-State Financial Relations; FRBM 
  • Reforms in Land, Labour, and Capital Markets 
  • Poverty, Inequality & Unemployment 
  • Infrastructure Development 

UGC NET Law Syllabus 2023

The candidates who are preparing to appear for the UGC NET Law exam must go through the syllabus to make a proper strategy to study for the exam. The subject code of the UGC NET Law is 58. The syllabus for the UGC NET law paper comprises 10 units-  Jurisprudence, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Public International Law & IHL, Law of Crimes, Law of Torts & Consumer Protection, etc. The candidates can go through the detailed syllabus below:

UNIT – I: Jurisprudence 

  • Nature and sources of law
  • Schools of jurisprudence
  • Law and morality
  • Concept of rights and duties
  • Legal personality
  • Concepts of property, ownership, and possession
  • Concept of liability
  • Law, poverty, and development
  • Global justice
  • Modernism and post-modernism

UNIT – II: Constitutional And Administrative Law

  • Preamble, fundamental rights and duties, directive principles of state
  • Union and State executive and their interrelationship
  • Union and State legislature and distribution of legislative powers
  • Judiciary
  • Emergency provisions
  • Temporary, transitional and special provisions in respect of certain states
  • Election Commission of India
  • Nature, scope and importance of administrative law
  • Principle of natural justice
  • Judicial review of administrative actions 

UNIT – III: Public International Law And IHL

  1. International law – Definition, nature and basis
  2. Sources of International law
  3. Recognition of states and governments
  4. Nationality, immigrants, refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs)
  5. Extradition and asylum
  6. United Nations and its organs
  7. Settlement of international disputes
  8. World Trade Organization (WTO)
  9. International humanitarian law (IHL) - Conventions and protocols
  10. Implementation of IHL - Challenges

UNIT – IV: Law of Crimes

  • General principles of criminal liability – Actus reus and mens rea, individual and group liability and constructive liability
  • Stages of crime and inchoate crimes - Abetment, criminal conspiracy and attempt
  • General exceptions
  • Offences against human body
  • Offences against state and terrorism
  • Offences against property
  • Offences against women and children
  • Drug trafficking and counterfeiting
  • Offences against public tranquility
  • Theories and kinds of punishments, compensation to the victims of crime

UNIT – V: Law of Torts And Consumer Protection

  • Nature and definition of tort
  • General principles of tortious liability
  • General defenses
  • Specific torts – Negligence, nuisance, trespass and defamation
  • Remoteness of damages
  • Strict and absolute liability
  • Tortious liability of the State
  • The Consumer Protection Act 1986 - Definitions, consumer rights and redressal mechanism
  • The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 - No fault liability, third party insurance and claims tribunal
  • The Competition Act, 2002 - Prohibition of certain agreements, abuse of dominant position and regulation of combinations

UNIT – VI: Commercial Law

  • Essential elements of contract and e-contract
  • Breach of contract, frustration of contract, void and voidable agreements
  • Standard form of contract and quasi-contract
  • Specific contracts - Bailment, pledge, indemnity, guarantee and agency
  • Sale of Goods Act, 1930
  • Partnership and limited liability partnership
  • Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881
  • Company law – Incorporation of a company, prospectus, shares and debentures
  • Company law – Directors and meetings
  • Corporate social responsibility

UNIT-VII: Family Law

  • Sources and schools
  • Marriage and dissolution of marriage
  • Matrimonial remedies - Divorce and theories of divorce
  • Changing dimensions of institution of marriage – Live-in relationship
  • Recognition of foreign decrees in India on marriage and divorce
  • Maintenance, dower and stridhan
  • Adoption, guardianship and acknowledgement
  • Succession and inheritance
  • Will, gift and wakf
  • Uniform Civil Code

UNIT –VIII: Environment And Human Rights Law

  • Meaning and concept of ‘environment’ and ‘environmental pollution’
  • International environmental law and UN Conferences
  • Constitutional and legal framework for protection of environment in India
  • Environmental Impact Assessment and control of hazardous waste in India
  • National Green Tribunal
  • Concept and development of human rights
  • Universalism and cultural relativism
  • International Bill of Rights
  • Group rights – Women, children, persons with disabilities, elderly persons, minorities and weaker sections
  • Protection and enforcement of human rights in India – National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Commission for Women, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Schedule Tribes and National Commission for Backward Classes

UNIT – IX: Intellectual Property Rights And Information Technology Law

  • Concept and meaning of intellectual property
  • Theories of intellectual property
  • International conventions pertaining to intellectual properties
  • Copyright and neighboring rights – Subject matters, limitations and exceptions, infringement and remedies
  • Law of patent – Patentability, procedure for grant of patent, limitations and exceptions, infringement and remedies
  • Law of trademark – Registration of trademarks, kinds of trademarks, infringement and passing off, remedies
  • Protection of Geographical Indications
  • Bio-diversity and Traditional Knowledge
  • Information technology law- digital signature and electronic signature, electronic governance, electronic records and duties of subscribers
  • Cyber crimes, penalties and adjudication

UNIT – X: Comparative Public Law And Systems of Governance

  • Comparative Law – Relevance, methodology, problems and concerns in Comparison
  • Forms of governments – Presidential and parliamentary, unitary and federal
  • Models of federalism – USA, Canada and India
  • Rule of Law – ‘Formal’ and ‘substantive’ versions
  • Separation of powers – India, UK, USA and France
  • Independence of judiciary, judicial activism and accountability – India, UK and USA
  • Systems of constitutional review – India, USA, Switzerland and France
  • Amendment of the Constitution – India, USA and South Africa
  • Ombudsman –Sweden, UK and India
  • Open Government and Right to Information - USA, UK and India

Also Read: UGC NET Law Topper's Interview and Preparation Tips 

UGC NET Buddhist, Jaina, Gandhian and Peace Studies Syllabus 2023

The NTA removed Paper 3 from 2019 onwards and updated the syllabus for Buddhist, Jaina, Gandhian, and Peace Studies syllabus. The subject code of the Budhha, Jaina, Gandhian and Peace Studies is 60. The Paper 2 syllabus comprises ten units. The detailed syllabus for the Budhha, Jaina, Gandhian, and Peace Studies has been given below:

Unit I

  • Life of Gautama the Buddha and the Origin of Buddhism (From the birth to Mahāparinirvāṇa and the events that happened thereafter) 
  • Buddhist Councils (From first to fourth) and the contribution of great emperors Aśoka and Kanișka to the spread of Buddhism in India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, China, and Tibet
  • Schools of Buddhism: Theravāda and four Philosophical Schools (Vaibhāșika, Sautrāntika, Vijňānavāda, and Mādhyamika) 
  • Pali and Sanskrit Canonical Buddhist Literature (Pāli Tipiṭaka and Sanskrit Vaipulya Sūtras) 
  • Life and Works of Buddhaghosa, Nāgārjuna, Vasubandhu and Dharmakīrti

Unit II 

  • Three modes of Teachings of the Buddha: Sīla, Samādhi, and Prajňā 
  • (i) Philosophical Concepts: Trilakṣaṇas: Anitya, Duḥkha, and Anātma

(ii) Noble Truths 

(iii) Pratītya-samutpāda 

(iv) Citta-santati and Ᾱlaya-vijňāna 

(v) Śūnyatā and Nirvāṇa 

  • Budddhist Meditation: Samatha and Vipassanā 
  • Six heretical thinkers, contemporary to the Buddha and their Philosophy

Unit III 

  • Ancient Buddhist Educational Institutions (Mahāvihāras): Nālandā, Valabhi, Vikramaśilā, Udantapurī, Somapurī and Jagaddala
  • Buddhist sculpture and Architecture: Nālandā, Bodhagayā Temple, Ajantā Caves, Sāncī Stūpa, Sāranātha 
  • Places of Buddhist Pilgrimage: Lumbinī, Bodhagayā, Sāranātha and Kuśīnārā 
  • Revival of Buddhism and Contribution of Anāgarika Dharmapāla, Mahāthera, Kṛpāśaraṇa, Candramaṇi Mahāthera and Bhikṣhu Jagadīśa Kāśyapa
  • Impact of Buddhism on Social and Economic Life

Unit IV

  • History of Jainism: Kālacakra (cycle of time) and the tradition of Tīrthaṅkaras - Life-sketch of Lord Ṛṣabhadeva, Pārśvanātha and Mahāvīra 
  • Jain Sects and their sub-division: Digambara and Śvetāmbara and their subsects. 
  • Ṇamokāra Mahāmantra, Five Preceptor (Pañca Parameṣṭhi), Prayer, Bhakti, Upāsanā; Three Jewels : Samyakdarśana-Jñāna-Cāritra. 
  • Prakrit Canonical (Āgama) Literature and their VĀCANĀS (councils). 
  • Prominent Ācāryas of Jainism : Life and works of Ācārya Kundakunda, Ācārya Umāsvāmi(ti), Ācārya Siddhasena, Ācārya Akalaṅka svāmi, Ācārya Haribhadra Sūri, Ācārya Vīrasena Svāmi, Ācārya Jinasena, Ācārya Hemchandra Sūri and Ācārya Yaśovijay

Unit V 

  • Vows: vows of Householders- Aṇuvratas, Guṇavratas, and Śikṣāvratas; Great Vows (Mahāvratas) of Monks- Ahiṃsā (non-violence), Satya (truth), Asteya (non-stealing), Braḥmacarya (celibacy) and Aparigraha (non-possessiveness)
  • Seven elements and six substances; Theory of Karma and its classification, Puruṣārtha
  • The concept of Knowledge and its classification
  •  Anekāntavāda and Syādvāda; Jain Yoga and Dhyāna
  • The Concept of Liberation in Jainism

Unit VI

  • Jain Art (Śilpa) and Architecture: Jain caves and temples of Southern India, Jain Temples of Khajurāho, Devagarḥa, Pālitānā and Mount-Ābu
  • Jain Sculptures, Paintings, and Jain Iconography: important Jain Sculptures available in India, Idols received from Śravaṇabelagolā and Mathurā
  • Impact of Jain Religion on Society: Vegetarianism (Śakāhāra) and Charity (Dāna); Status of women in Jain Religion
  • Environmental and Ecological thoughts in Jainism; Jainism and Science
  • Main Centres of Jaina Learning: Śravaṇabelagolā, Jesalamera, Ahmedabad, Varanasi, Vaishali, Koba, Ladnun, Jaipur, Delhi; Jainism in abroad

Unit VII 

  • Mahatma Gandhi: 

(i) Family background 

(ii) Early life and education in India and England 

(iii) Impact of various Religions and their Scriptures

  • Gandhi in South Africa: 

(i) The origin of Satyagraha 

(ii) Struggle against Racial discrimination, injustice, and exploitation 

(iii) Impact of Leo Tolstoy, John Ruskin, Henry David Thoreau, Raichandra Bhai, etc.

Unit VIII 

  • Foundations of Gandhi’s Social, Political, Economic and Religious Thought: 

(i) Views on Social Justice, Social inequalities, Caste System and Untouchability. 

(ii) Women’s Problems and Empowerment 

(iii) Gandhi’s views on Truth, Non-Violence, Satyagraha and the Theory of ends and means 

  • State and Democracy: 

(i) Panchayat Raj 

(ii) Parliamentary Democracy, Sovereignty, Freedom, Spiritualization of politics 

(iii) Human Rights and Duties.

  • Fundamentals of Gandhian Economics: 

(i) Critique of Modern Western Civilization, Labour-Capital Relations 

(ii) Small-Scale Cottage Industries 

(iii) Constructive Programme and Sustainable Development. 

Unit IX

  • Gandhi’s Role in Freedom Movement: 

(i) Champaran 

(ii) Non-Cooperation 

(iii) Ahmedabad Mill Strike, Dandi March 

(iv) Bardoli and Kheda Satyagrahas 

(v) His Role in Vykom Satyagraha and Quit India Movement. 

  • Gandhi and Partition of India.

Unit X

  • Peace Studies: 

(i) Understanding Peace – Coercive and Non-Coercive Approaches, Culture of Peace

(ii) The problem of War: Causes, Types, Attributes and Theories of War. 

  • Major Peace Movements: 

(i) Pacifism, Civil Rights Movement in U.S.A. Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament by various Agencies

(ii) Green Peace Movement

(iii) The contemporary Global Issues regarding World War and Quest for Peace

(iv) Legacy of Peace Builders: Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King (Jr.), Daisaku Ikeda and Nelson Mandela

  • Conflicts: 

(i) Concept, Nature and Causes, Methods of Conflict Resolution

(ii) Agencies of Conflict Resolution, UN Peace Keeping, Peace Building, Peace Education, Adjudication, Role of Shanti Sena, Track–II Diplomacy, etc. 

  • Human Security and Terrorism: 

(i) The problem of Terrorism 

(ii) Structural and State Violence

New UGC NET 2023 Subject Added for Paper 2

In 2022, the UGC added a new subject 'Hindu Studies' (Subject code 102) to the list of UGC NET 2023 subjects. The syllabus of the UGC NET Hindu Studies has been shared below as a PDF download file. Candidates who want to choose the Hindu Studies subject can download the detailed syllabus now and start with their preparations. 

Also Read: List of UGC NET Subjects 2023 with Codes

Best UGC NET Books for Preparation

Go through the list of important books recommended by toppers for preparation of UGC NET Paper 1 below.

UGC NET Paper 1 Book


Trueman's UGC NET/SET General Paper I

M Gagan and Sajit Kumar

NTA UGC NET/SET/JRF Paper I: Teaching and Research Aptitude by Pearson

KVS Madaan

General Paper-1 UGC NET/JRF/SLET – Teaching & Research Aptitude

Arihant Experts

Upkar’s UGC-NET/JRF/SET Teaching And Research Aptitude (General Paper - I)

Dr Lal Jain and Dr KC Vashistha

Get the Top Score in DI and Logical Reasoning section of Competitive Entrance Exams with Expert Prep Tips

Click Here

Q:   How can I prepare for UGC NET exam?

As we all know that the difficulty level of UGC NET is very high. To get sure shot success in this exam, you must be highly passionate and dedicated towards your studies. 1. First of all, collect the basic information regarding the subject like its eligibility criteria, exam pattern, syllabus, best books, etc. 2. Get aware of all the latest notifications related to the exam to know about the exam activities. 3. Analyze the complete UGC NET Syllabus and make a preparation strategy. Start the preparation with Paper-1 syllabus because it is simpler than the Paper 2. You must finish it as soon as you can. 4. Make short notes for last time revision. 5. Manage time properly. Give time to the topics according to their importance level. 6. Solve previous years question papers and practice online mock test papers. 7. Be positive, be hopeful and be confident.
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Q:   Which are the best preparation books for UGC NET (Commerce)?

Some books are which are often recommended are: Arihant's NTA UGC NET/JRF/SET Paper 2 Commerce 11th and 12th textbooks for basic R. S. AGGARWAL & TS Grewal Graduation Textbook By Maheshwari and Mittal Graduation Textbook Micro Economics by Dr Deepshree Graduation level Textbook and Internet/ Wikipedia Graduation level Textbook by I. M. Pandey Post-Graduation level Textbook Business Statistics by Dr J. K. Thakur Graduation level Textbook by C. R. Kothari.
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Q:   What are important preparation strategies for UGC NET?

Below are 6 easy tips to help with the UGC NET examination: 1. Study Material: Purchase good books specified by UGC, which will help one with the basic concepts and logics while covering the syllabus. 2. Preparing Notes: Preparing short notes is a very good way of practicing the syllabus in a short time and will help while revising everything. Make note of important facts and points to refer to them as soon as you have some doubts. Writing is notes is can help you remembering things. Underlining and highlighting are other ways which will be very good to make note of important points. 3. Time Management: Time management skills are essential and beneficial for ones who are going to take up the UGC NET Exam. 4. Online Tests and Self-analysis 5. Updated: Keep yourself updated with all the current news about the UGC NET exam and most importantly all these candidates should be well versed with all the UGC NET subjects being offered for the exam. 6. Revision With proper preparation, successfully clearing the UGC NET examination isn’t a distant dream. However with the help of a UGC NET Coaching, achieving that dream would be much easier.
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UGC NET Exam Pattern

Candidates who want to appear for the UGC NET 2023 exam must know the exam pattern. As the exam pattern will help the candidates to understand the UGC NET exam. The candidates can prepare for the UGC NET exam more effectively after knowing the UGC NET 2023 exam pattern. The exam pattern for the UGC NET 2023 exam has been given below: 


Number of Question 

Time Duration 

Paper 1 


3 Hours 

Paper 2  




3 Hours 

Also Read:  UGC NET JRF Validity Extended for another 1 Year

UGC NET Marking Scheme

The candidates will be awarded 2 marks for correct answers and no marks will be deducted for incorrect answers as there is no negative marking scheme in the UGC NET exam. Candidates can know the making scheme in the given table below: 

Types of Answer  


Correct Answers 

Incorrect Answers 

Total Marks in UGC NET  

300 Marks  

Also More: UGC NET 2023 Books for Paper 1 & Paper 2

Q:   What is the marking scheme of UGC NET exam?

The marking of the UGC NET exam has been given below for the candidates. Following the marking scheme for the UGC NET exam the candidates who are willing to appear in the UGC NET exam can understand the exam pattern and prepare for the exam well. The marking will also help the candidate to count the probable scores from the UGC NET provisional answer key that is released by the National Testing Agency (NTA): a)Correct answer: 2 b) Incorrect answer: No negative mark c) Unanswered/marked for review: 0 (no marks given) d) Incorrect or ambiguous question/has multiple correct answers: 2 to those who have chosen one of the correct answers. E) Incorrect or dropped questions: 2 to those who have attempted the question.

Q:   Is it mandatory to appear for both papers of UGC NET exam?

Yes, it is mandatory for candidates to appear for both UGC NET Paper 1 and 2 to qualify for the UGC NET exam. The candidates have to qualify for both papers separately. Candidates who will qualify for one paper will not be considered as qualified for the UGC NET exam. Paper 1 consists 50 questions for 100 marks. Paper 2 consists 100 questions for 200 marks. The candidates are advised to study paper 1 as paper 2 or they will not qualify for the UGC NET exam 2023.

Q:   I have not cleared the UGC NET exam. Can I appear for the exam again?


Yes you can definitely appear for the UGC NET exam again If you did not clear it in the first attempt. The UGC NET exam is conducted twice a year by the National Testing Agency (NTA) for the selection of Assistant Professor and award for Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) in various Indian Universities and Colleges. 

There is no limit on the number o attempts that you can makefor the UGC NET exam. However, you have to fulfill the eligibility criteria for the exam, which include having master's  degree with at least 55 per cent marks (50 per cent for reserved categories) or equivalent from the UGC recognised University. The age eligibility for the UGC NET exam has been given below for the candidates:

Candidates applying for the Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) should not be more than 30 years of age as on the first day of the month in which the UGC NET 2023 exam concludes. 

UGC NET JRF Age Limit Relaxation 2023

Relaxation of JRF age criteria is given to SC, ST, OBC, PwD, women, and other category candidates. Have a look at the age relaxation for the reserved categories below. 


Age Relaxation (in years)

SC/ST/OBC/PwD/Third Gender


Females of all categories


Candidates having research experience

Limited to the period spent on research

(Maximum of 5 years)

Candidates holding LLM degree


Candidates in armed forces

(subject to the length of service in the armed forces)



Topper Tips for UGC NET Preparation 2023

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Answered a week ago

If you have secured at least 55% marks in Masters Degree or equivalent examination from universities or institutions recognised by UGC in Humanities (including languages) and Social Science, Computer Science & Applications, Electronic Science etc. are eligible for this. These conditions should be me



Anubhav Mishra

Contributor-Level 6

Answered 2 weeks ago

To check the result, candidates must visit the official website of NTA, which is

Along with the result, the NTA will also release the cut-off marks and a merit list for the qualified candidates.



Contributor-Level 6

Answered 2 weeks ago

Candidates must secure 55% marks in Post-graduation, and 5% relaxation for the reserved category. Candidates who have prior research experience are given preference. A UGC NET-qualified candidate is not required to give the entrance exam, they can sit directly in an interview.



Contributor-Level 6

Answered 2 weeks ago

Candidates appearing for the University Grants Commission National Eligibility Test (UGC NET) in 2023 are required to carry the following documents to the examination centre:

  • UGC NET Admit Card: The admit card is a mandatory document that candidates must carry to the examination centre. It contains i



Dewesh Nandan Prasad

Contributor-Level 10

Answered a month ago

Candidates who want to appear for the UGC NET exam must have a Master's degree or its equivalent from a recognized university with at least 55% marks. However, As per UGC NET Eligibility, the minimum percentage required for SC/ST/OBC/PwD candidates is 50%. So, these candidates can give  UGC Net.




Contributor-Level 6

Answered a month ago

The UGC NET Folk Literature syllabus serves as a roadmap, guiding candidates to familiarize themselves with all the topics in detail.

Folk Literature is an amalgamated discipline which not only involves folklore but also includes disciplines like Linguistics, Psychology, Anthropology and Human Histor


Dr Uma Sinha

Scholar-Level 17

Answered 2 months ago


A master's degree in environmental Science or a closely related field with at least 55% overall (or 50% for applicants from restricted categories) of the possible points is required for UGC NET Environmental Science eligibility.
According to the UGC NET test criteria, candidates may take the exam in



Kishan Sah

Contributor-Level 8

Answered 2 months ago

Whether you do your Masters in regular mode or through distance learning is immaterial. Just make sure that the degree is from an approved university.

You can appear in the Subject Code - 01 which covers Economics / Rural Economics /Co-operation / Demography / Development Planning/ Development Studie



Shubham Kumar

Beginner-Level 5

Answered 2 months ago

Yes with your B.Sc. in Zoology and M.Sc. in Animal Behaviour you are eligible to appear for the UGC NET exam. The UGC NET exam is conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA) on behalf of the University Grants Commission (UGC) for determining the eligibility of candidates for the role of Assistant



Shruti Mangla

Contributor-Level 8

Answered 2 months ago

NCERT books can be beneficial for the aspirants in the initial days of preparation, especially for paper 1. However, * will not cover all the topics in detail. Sometimes UGC NET exam covers a wide range from all topics and may the NCERT book will NIT cover the topics in depth. Therefore, the candida



Dewesh Nandan Prasad

Contributor-Level 10

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