What is Steganography?

What is Steganography?

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Updated on Nov 30, 2023 16:53 IST

Steganography, a term rooted in Greek, signifies the art of concealed communication. But what exactly is it? In lay terms, it involves hiding a message within another seemingly innocuous message or object (image file, media files, or text files) so that it becomes difficult to detect.

What is Steganography

This practice dates back centuries, initially involving physical forms like invisible ink. Today, it has evolved to encompass digital mediums, where it plays a crucial role in securing information.

Table of Content

What is Steganography?

Steganography is the practice of hiding information within other seemingly ordinary messages or media. The word “Steganography” is made from two Greek words: "steganos," meaning covered, and "graphein," meaning writing.

In simple terms, this technique actively hides data to make it hard to find, ensuring only the chosen recipient knows it exists.

How Steganography Works?

Steganography works by embedding hidden information into an ordinary file or communication channel. To encode secret data, one might alter specific bits in an image or embed a hidden message within the noise of an audio file. The goal is to make the presence of the hidden data undetectable to casual observers or automated analysis.

What Are the Different Types of Steganography Used Today? (Steganography Techniques / Forms of Steganography)

Modern steganography includes several types:

Text Steganography

In text steganography, one hides secret messages within regular text. Methods include adding extra spaces or changing letter cases. Users employ steganography tools like OpenStego to embed hidden text.

Image Steganography

This steganography technique embeds data in images by slightly changing pixel colours. It usually uses the least significant bit (LSB) modification methods. QuickStego is a popular tool for this purpose.

Audio Steganography

Audio steganography hides data in sound files, often by subtly altering sound waveforms. DeepSound is a commonly used tool that can hide data without affecting audio quality noticeably.

Video Steganography

In this method, one conceals information within video files, often by modifying specific frames. Tools like OpenPuff are designed to embed data into videos without making apparent changes.

Network Steganography

Network steganography involves hiding information in network communication, like altering packet timings or headers. CovertTcp is an example of a tool for creating hidden network traffic communications.

How Is Steganography Applied in Cybersecurity and Covert Operations?

In cybersecurity, professionals use steganography for secure communication to avoid detection by third parties. For covert operations, it serves as a means of exchanging information discreetly.

Examples of Steganography Used in Cybersecurity

  • Counter-Espionage: Some cybersecurity teams use steganography to plant deceptive information to combat espionage. This technique intentionally hides information in regular network traffic to mislead potential attackers about a system's vulnerabilities or the locations of valuable data.
  • Data Masking: Companies often use steganography to mask sensitive information when transmitting over insecure networks. By embedding data in ordinary files like digital images or audio, unauthorized entities prevent the interception of critical information.

Examples of Steganography Used in Covert Operations

  • World War II: The Allies secretly used microdots, tiny photographs of reduced-size documents, to transmit information. Users actively conceal microdots, as tiny as a sentence's period, within ordinary letters to evade enemy detection.
  • Social Media and Online Platforms: With the advent of social media, steganography has found new ground. Agencies have reportedly used social media images to send information covertly. These images, accessible to anyone but meaningful only to the knowledgeable, provide a perfect cover for covert communication.

How Does Steganography Differ from Traditional Encryption Methods?

Unlike encryption, which makes the content of a message unreadable without a key, steganography hides the message's existence. Steganography secretly carries out communication, unlike encryption, which tends to attract attention by its nature.

Steganography vs. Cryptography

Cryptography scrambles messages to make them unreadable. Meanwhile, steganography hides the message within another file or medium, maintaining the appearance of innocence. Cryptography is about securing the content, while steganography is about concealing the existence of the communication.

Steganography and NFTs

In NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens), steganography can embed secret data within digital artwork or other assets. This technique serves multiple purposes. It can:

  • Confirm authenticity
  • Embed secret messages
  • Store private keys and sensitive data in novel ways, etc.

Applications of Steganography

Secure Communication

  • Used by corporations and governments to transmit sensitive information hidden in digital media to avoid interception or unauthorized access.
  • Example: Embedding confidential documents within images for secure email attachments.

Digital Watermarking

  • Employed for copyright protection and authentication of digital media like photos, videos, and software.
  • Example: Movie studios embed unique codes in films to track piracy.


  • Used to hide information about network configurations or sensitive data, making it harder for hackers to exploit systems.
  • Example: Hiding system details within regular network traffic to prevent surveillance by cyber attackers.

Covert Operations and Espionage

  • Intelligence agencies and military use steganography for secret communication that evades detection.
  • Example: Embedding mission-critical data in social media images for covert agent communication.

Anti-Censorship and Privacy Protection

  • Activists and journalists in oppressive regimes use it to bypass censorship and surveillance.
  • Example: Sending messages hidden in innocuous-looking images or videos through social media.

Data Exfiltration Prevention

  • In cybersecurity, used to detect unauthorized transmission of sensitive data from within an organization.
  • Example: Implementing steganalysis techniques to uncover hidden data transfer.

Malware and Cyber-Attack Communication

  • Cybercriminals use steganography to communicate with malware or exfiltrate data discreetly.
  • Example: Malware interprets commands embedded in image files after downloading them.

How to Detect Steganography?

Detecting steganography requires a careful balance between technical analysis and intuitive observation. Here's a more balanced approach to understanding how one does it:

In Images

  • Pixel Analysis: This involves examining an image's minute changes in pixel values. Tools like StegExpose can automate this process by statistically analyzing an image's pixels to identify unusual patterns that might indicate hidden data.
  • Colour Spectrum Inspection: Some methods involve inspecting the color spectrum of images. It is done to detect any irregularities that might hide information.

In Audio Files

  • Spectral Analysis: The process is about analyzing the sound spectrum for audio. Tools like DeepSound can detect changes in the audio's frequency or waveforms that might signify embedded data.
  • Waveform Examination: It also involves inspecting the audio file's waveform for any anomalies that could represent hidden information.

In Network Traffic

  • Packet Analysis: Here, the focus is on inspecting the size, frequency, and timing of network packets. Unusual patterns or inconsistencies can be a sign of steganography.
  • Network Monitoring Tools: Software like Wireshark can monitor network traffic for any signs of steganographic communication.

How to Mitigate Steganography-based Attacks?

Mitigation of steganography-based attacks in cybersecurity involves a multi-faceted approach:

Enhanced Monitoring

  • Regular Scans for Anomalies: Implementing tools like StegExpose or StegDetect that scan files for steganographic content.
  • Network Traffic Analysis: Using advanced network monitoring tools like Wireshark to detect irregularities in network traffic, which might indicate steganography use.

Security Awareness

  • Employee Training: Conduct regular training sessions using resources from cybersecurity organizations to educate employees about the signs of steganography.
  • Workshops on Data Security: In workshops, organisers demonstrate using tools like OpenPuff to hide and transfer data easily.

Advanced Detection Tools

  • Steganalysis Software: Utilizing specialized steganalysis software like StegHunter or StegSpy to detect hidden data in digital files.
  • Image Analysis Programs: Employing image analysis tools capable of detecting subtle changes in pixel values, a common technique in image steganography.
  • Audio Analysis Tools: Tools like DeepSound for analyzing audio files for any hidden data layers.


Steganography is an art of hiding information within seemingly normal messages or media. This practice, dating back centuries, has evolved significantly with digital technology. Unlike traditional encryption, which makes a message unreadable, steganography conceals the message's very existence, maintaining the appearance of innocence. It has various forms, including text, image, audio, video, and network steganography, each using different methods to hide data.

In cybersecurity, professionals use steganography for secure communication and data masking, and in covert operations, it serves for espionage and secret communications. It also finds applications in NFTs, embedding secret data, and serves for digital watermarking and anti-censorship efforts

Detecting steganography requires analysis techniques like pixel analysis in images, spectral analysis in audio files, and packet analysis in network traffic. To mitigate steganography-based attacks, enhanced monitoring of files and network traffic, security awareness training, and advanced detection tools like steganalysis software and audio analysis tools are necessary.

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