Microbiology Subjects List: Year-wise Syllabus, Semesters, Specializations & Books

Updated on Nov 3, 2023 09:42 IST
Parul Thapa

Parul ThapaSenior Executive Content

Microbiology is a subject that deeply explains the concept of microorganisms and microbes related to the study of Microbiology. It is a diverse group that includes the study of bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other viruses and is concerned with the functions, structure, and classifications of such organisms. According to the eligibility conditions and preferences of students, they can study the course as an undergraduate, postgraduate, diploma, certification, and so on. Students who are interested in the study of Microbiology can choose highly preferred courses such as BSc and BTech in Microbiology.

Important Facts for Microbiology Subjects

Take a look at some of the important facts and information regarding Microbiology subjects.

  • BSc Microbiology is a six-semester course: A BSc in Microbiology is a six-semester undergraduate course that is related to the study of microorganisms such as unicellular organisms, viruses, bacteria, microscopic animals, and fungi. It focuses on the research of pathology and biochemistry.

  • BTech in Microbiology is a four-year course: The study of Microbiology in BTech is a four-year undergraduate course that provides knowledge on the use of various microorganisms and their part in the manufacture of industrial products, chemicals, food ingredients, and so on.

  • Scope in India: Microbiology is concerned with various fields such as medicine, pharmacy, chemical technology, and many more. Students of Microbiology can become microbiologists, mycologists, professors or lecturers, clinical research technicians, etc in India. Students can also work in different clinical laboratories and hospitals.

  • Students are graded for Summative and Formatives: Students in every semester are graded based on the assignments. In the end semester exams, it will include 70 per cent for the summative test and 30 per cent for the formative tests.

List of Subjects in Microbiology

Typical Core Subjects for Microbiology

Subject title

Subject details

Fundamentals of Microbiology

The students will learn about the study of microscopic organisms which are multicellular, unicellular, and acellular. This subject also explains the structure, growth, functions, preservation, and control of microorganisms. Students understand the wide variety of microorganisms such as algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and many other viruses.

Some other parts of the syllabus are:

  • Introduction to Microbiology

  • Microscopy

  • Control of microorganisms

  • Prokaryotic structure and function

  • Biology of microorganisms

  • Stains and staining techniques

  • Fundamental principles of bacteriology

Microbial diversity, growth, and diversity

This subject is highly concerned with the functioning of the ecosystem and maintaining an ecosystem with the help of ecological processes such as nutrient cycling, decomposition of organic matter, soil aggregation, controlling pathogens, and many more.

Some other parts of the syllabus are:

  • Microbial diversity

  • Classification of microbial diversity

  • Reproduction and significance of fungi

  • Nutritional requirements and growth of microorganisms

  • Isolation, culturing, and maintenance of pure culture

  • Growth curve and diauxic growth curve

  • Determination of cell count by hemocytometry

Biophysics, biochemistry, and microbiological physiology

Through this subject, students will understand how microbial cell structures will grow and their metabolism functions in living organisms. Further, it explains the importance of microbial physiology in the field of functional genomics and metabolic engineering.

Some other parts of the syllabus are:

  • General introduction and scope of biophysics

  • Radioisotopes and their decay units

  • Biochemistry, structure, and function

  • The central role of ATP in metabolism

  • Microbial physiology

  • Aerobic respiration of Krebs cycle, ETC in bacteria

  • Introduction to lipid metabolism

Microbial genetics, molecular biology, and recombinant DNA technology

Under this subject, the student will learn about microbial genetics which means the area within genetic engineering and Microbiology. The students study the recombinant DNA technology which explains the process of cutting and pasting DNA molecules to introduce them to new host cells.

Some other types of the syllabus are :

  • Microbial genetics and molecular biology

  • Structure, functions, and types of DNA and RNA

  • DNA replication in bacteria

  • Mutations -definition, types, and fluctuation test

  • Introduction to recombinant DNA technology

  • Tools for genetic engineering

  • Screening and selection of recombinant cells

  • Applications of genetic engineering

Immunology and medical Microbiology

The students learn about immunology and medical Microbiology which provides knowledge about the immune system and with the help of mechanisms that are utilised by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites to cause disease.

Some other parts of the syllabus are:

  • History and scope of immunology

  • Cells, tissues, and organs involved in the immune system

  • Immunology of tissue transplantation and cancer

  • Major developments in medical Microbiology and Koch’s postulates

  • Study of pathogens

  • Definitions and classifications of antibiotics

Biostatistics, food and dairy Microbiology

The food and dairy Microbiology subject provides knowledge about the food fermentation of vegetables and meat products, its preservation through chemical preservatives methods, physical methods, and some natural methods. The students also gain the knowledge of biostatics which is concerned with the application and development of various statistical methods to topics of biology.

Some other parts of the syllabus are:

  • Importance and applications of biostatistics

  • Frequency distribution and graphic representation of data

  • Measures of central tendencies

  • Hypothesis testing

  • Food and microorganisms

  • Food spoilage and food poisoning

  • Food preservation

  • Dairy Microbiology

  • Microorganisms in milk

Industrial Microbiology and bioinformatics

The syllabus of this subject explains bioinformatics which is related to the automating of microbial genome and analysis of genomes to understand genes. Industrial Microbiology is the study of profit-motivated and large-scale production of microorganisms for direct use.

Some other parts of the syllabus are:

  • Scope of industrial Microbiology

  • Strain improvement methods

  • Types of industrial fermentation processes

  • Immobilisation of enzymes and cells

  • Introduction to bioinformatics

  • Objectives of bioinformatics

  • The multiplicity of data and redundancy

  • Modern methods of identification of bacteria based on carbon utilisation, lipid signature

Typical Elective Subjects for Microbiology

Subject title

Subject details

Clinical Microbiology

Students will learn about clinical Microbiology which encompasses a broad range of testing methodologies and also isolate and identify them. There are a variety of pathogens and many testing methods which makes microbial testing more challenging. Detecting error and its correction is an important component of Microbiology testing.

Some other parts of the syllabus are:

  • Study of infections in the organ system

  • Bloodstream infections

  • Respiratory tract infections

  • Central nervous system infections

  • Urinary tract infections

  • Gastrointestinal tract infections

Microbial ecology

Students will learn about microbial ecology which is concerned with the study of interactions of microorganisms with plants, animal species, the environment, and many more. The main focus of this subject is on the diversity, distribution, and microorganisms, their interactions, and their effect on the ecosystem.


The students will learn about microorganisms and Microbiology through this subject. This subject also explains microbial technology such as fermented beverages, friendly bacteria, a boon to mankind, key for a green revolution, etc. This subject also explains the impact of microbes on various human diseases.

Detailed Syllabus for Microbiology Subjects

The syllabus of B.sc in Microbiology may vary from one university to the other, but the subjects are more or less the same. Here is a general overview of the core or elective subjects taught from the first to sixth semesters in BSc Microbiology.



Subject title

Subject Details


Macromolecular structure and analysis

Macromolecular structure and analysis

Students learn to identify macromolecular assemblies and their functions. It is the study of large conformational changes which come in motions with macromolecular domains also relative to each other. It is formed by the polymerization of a large number of macromolecules.


Cell structure and dynamics

Cell structure and dynamics

This subject aims to provide the knowledge of cell structure which combines individual components with other specific functions that are essential to carry out different life processes. All the components include cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, cell organelles, and nucleus.


Organic mechanisms in biology

Organic mechanisms in biology

This subject includes topics like organic synthesis, chemical methods, and their application to investigate biological systems, organic materials & their developments, and biomaterials that are used to research hydrogels and polymers.


Principles of immunology

Principles of immunology

This subject explains the four essential principles of immunology for a healthy immune system such as the ability to detect infections, recognize host cells and protect them from attacks, a memory from foreign infections, and the last principle of limiting the response after removal of the pathogen.


Introduction to data structure & computer organization

Introduction to data structure & computer organization

Students will learn about the ER model, various models of DBMS, the concept of SQL, computer network models, connecting devices under this subject. It deeply explains the concept of a stack, queue, sorting, searching, etc.


Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics

The students will learn to identify the concept of molecular genetics which is closely related to sub-field biology and which measures the differences in the structure of DNA molecules among the many organisms.


Recombinant DNA technology

Recombinant DNA technology

This subject gives detailed information about recombinant DNA technology which means joining together the two DNA molecules of different species. It is the study of inserting DNA molecules into a host organism for producing new genetic combinations.


Medical Microbiology

Medical Microbiology

Medical Microbiology is the branch of medical science that is concerned with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment infectious diseases. For the improvement of health, it explains the various clinical applications of microbes.


Food and agricultural Microbiology

Food and agricultural Microbiology

Under this subject students will learn about food Microbiology which is concerned with the testing of raw materials, making in-process, and preparing finished products from them which are safe to consume.

Specialisations offered in Microbiology Subjects

Microbiology is a specialised course that deals with the study of microorganisms and their biological characteristics. There are many specialisations offered by different institutions such as Microbiology in biotechnology, genetics, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and many more. The branches of Microbiology consist of bacteriology, mycology, protozoology, parasitology, virology. Nematology and so on.




Environmental Microbiology

  • Concepts of Microbiology

  • Microbial biochemistry

  • Microbial physiology and adaptations

  • Environmental Microbiology in sustainable development

  • Advancement in bioremediation

  • Cell biology and immunology

Students can choose this field who want to make their career in environmental Microbiology which is concerned with the study of microorganisms scientifically in the environment.

Microbial physiology

  • Microbial cell structure and its functions

  • Chemiosmotic theory and chemical energy

  • Thermodynamics and oxidation/reduction reactions

  • Introduction about fermentation

  • Photosynthesis

  • Cellular respiration

  • Overview of central metabolism

  • Cell to cell combination

Students can also choose this field which is related to the study of microbial cell structures that helps in the growth and metabolism of the living being. It is also the study of microbial metabolism, microbial growth, and microbial cell structure.

Molecular genetics

  • Macromolecular structure and analysis

  • Biophysics & instrumentation

  • Biochemistry

  • Introduction to computer

  • Microbial genetics

  • Genome organisation

  • Tissue culture techniques

  • Molecular biology techniques

  • Recombinant DNA technology

  • Dissertation on molecular biology


The study can also opt for this field which helps in gaining information about the subfields of biology which helps in addressing the differences of structures of DNA molecules.

Virology bioinformatics

  • Basic virology

  • Virological methods

  • Recombinant DNA technology

  • Bioinformatics

  • Biochemical and biophysical methods

  • Viral respiratory diseases

  • Analytical techniques

  • Entomological methods

  • Propagation of viruses

Virology bioinformatics is a study that is concerned with the combination of virology with bioinformatics and also involves the application of communication technology and information with aspects of viral research.

Books and Authors Related to Microbiology

Microbiology is a course related to the field of science with many specialisations. The students follow a wide range of books during their graduation or post-graduation courses. listed below are the books of some authors who are highly preferred by scholars.


Book title



Macromolecular structure and analysis

Microcalorimetry of macromolecules

Peter L. Privalov

The author explains the structure of macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and their complexes using calorimetric techniques.

Organic mechanisms in biology

Concerted organic and bio-organic mechanisms

Andrew Williams

Bioorganic mechanisms provide the details of the organic synthesis and the application of chemical methods in the investigation of biological systems.

Principles of immunology

The principles of immunology

Howard T Karsner

The principles of the immunology book explain the four essential principles and their accomplishments.

Molecular genetics

Human molecular genetics

Tom Strachan

Human molecular genetics provides an authoritative introduction to the molecular aspects of human genetics and many more.

Food and agricultural Microbiology

Advances in agricultural Microbiology

N.S. Subbarao

The author researched the gateway to sustaining and improving agriculture and food production, safety, and quality.

Entrance Exams for Microbiology

Listed below are the exams conducted every year through these exams students can secure seats at premier institutes in India. The exams are conducted at the state and central levels and fixed with minimum eligibility conditions are a bachelor's degree in Microbiology with a minimum aggregate of 55 per cent from a recognised university. Students need to fulfil the cut-off requirements.

  • CSIR NET exam

  • GATE exam

  • Joint graduate entrance examination for biology and interdisciplinary life sciences


  • ICMR-JRF exam

  • PET exam

  • ARS exam


  • BIS exam

  • DBT-BET exam

The difficulty level of exams ranges from moderate level to high level. Students can apply for such examinations with a master's degree in other life science subjects such as biochemistry, biotech, and many more. To score good marks in the examination students need to study subjects like general Microbiology, microbial genetics, genetic engineering, food Microbiology, and so on. Almost all of the examinations are conducted in the format of Multiple-Choice Questions and can get you to the best colleges for post-graduate degrees in Microbiology.

Syllabus for Distance Programmes in Microbiology

The distance program is a program developed to provide education to those students who cannot afford full-time courses. such students can opt for part-time education in BSc in Microbiology. The syllabus of such examinations is almost the same as the full-time examination. The evaluation format of distance education is almost similar to the regular courses.

The top colleges that provide distance education in Microbiology are NMIMS, Chandigarh University, IGNOU, Amity University, Symbiosis University, Annamalai University, and many more.

FAQs Regarding Microbiology Subjects

Q: Describe Microbiology as a course?

A: Microbiology is defined as the study of living organisms that are too small to be visible to naked eyes. Microbes consist of bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi, prions, protozoa, and so on.

Q: What are the subjects taught in Microbiology courses?

A: The list of subjects which students studied in Microbiology are:
  • Immunology.

  • Biotechnology.

  • Biochemistry.

  • Microbial Physiology.

  • Microbial Genetics.

  • Molecular Biology.

  • Biophysics and Instrumentation.

  • Basic Microscopy and Instrumentation

Q: What are the fields of Microbiology?

A: There are many fields of Microbiology subjects such as bacteriology, mycology, immunology, nematology, parasitology and phycology, and many more where Microbiology is applied.


Q: What are the subjects students studied in BSc in Microbiology?

A: The students will learn the subjects in BSc Microbiology are listed below:
    • Macromolecular structure and analysis

    • Cell structure and dynamics

    • Organic mechanisms in biology

    • Principles of immunology

    • Introduction to data structure & computer organisation

    • Molecular genetics

    • Medical Microbiology

    • Recombinant DNA technology

Q: What is the scope of Microbiology?

A: The Microbiology scope is involved in fields like medicine, pharmacy, diary, industry, clinical research, water industry, agriculture, chemical technology, and nanotechnology.

Q: What are the specialisations offered for Microbiology?

A: There are numerous specialisations offered by Microbiology such as environmental Microbiology, microbial physiology, molecular genetics, virology, bio formatives, and many more.

Q: What is the main purpose of microbiologists?

A: The main purpose of microbiologists is to solve the range of different problems which affect the health of the human body, climate, environment, food, and agriculture.

Q: What are the branches of Microbiology?

A: The basic six branches of Microbiology are immunology, bacteriology, phycology, nematology, virology, and mycology.

Q: What do you mean by the organic mechanism in biology?

A: An organic mechanism in biology is the study that deals with the steps involved in the reaction of organic compounds.

Q: What are the job profiles offered after the completion of a BSc in Microbiology degree?

A: After completing BSc in Microbiology, students can pursue their careers as food technologists, physician associates, research scientists and scientific laboratory technicians, and many more.

Q: Which are some of the universities in India that offer Microbiology courses?

A: Several universities and colleges that offer Microbiology courses are Madras Christian college, Kristu Jayanti College, The oxford college of science, Chandigarh University, NMIMS, IGNOU, Chandigarh, Ramnarain Ruia College, Symbiosis University, Pune many more.

Popular Microbiology Colleges in India

Following are the most popular Microbiology Colleges in India. Learn more about these Microbiology colleges (Courses, Reviews, Answers & more) by downloading the Brochure.
1 Course
1.05 L
8.66 LPA
2 Courses
10.83 K
5 - 15.5 LPA
1.6 L


2 Courses
13.54 K - 14.9 K
6.75 LPA
1 Course
12 K
9.2 LPA
1 Course
8.47 LPA

#47 India Today

Popular Private Microbiology Colleges in India

2.38 L - 3.3 L
2.7 - 6.35 LPA

#27 NIRF

Microbiology Applications open. Apply Now

8 Courses
1.35 L - 1.5 L
3.2 L - 7.2 L
4 - 6.75 LPA

Microbiology Applications open. Apply Now

1.52 L - 5.76 L
3 - 5.5 LPA

#35 NIRF

Popular Microbiology UG Courses in India

Following are the most popular Microbiology UG Courses . You can explore the top Colleges offering these UG Courses by clicking the links below.

UG Courses

Popular Microbiology PG Courses in India

Following are the most popular Microbiology PG Courses . You can explore the top Colleges offering these PG Courses by clicking the links below.

PG Courses


Student Forum

chatAnything you would want to ask experts?
Write here...

Answered 4 days ago

Chandigarh University, ranked as India's top private university by QS Asia University Rankings 2024, offers B.Sc. Microbiology students a pathway to diverse and promising career opportunities. Through the UniversityI nstitute of Biotechnology's (UIBT) renowned curriculum, encompassing Animal, Plant,



deepak kumar

Answered 5 days ago

Chandigarh University, ranked as India's top private university by QS Asia University Rankings 2024, offers promising placement opportunities for M.Sc. Industrial Microbiology graduates. The University Institute of Biotechnology (UIBT) provides a comprehensive curriculum blending Animal, Plant, and



Varshika Singh

Answered 2 weeks ago

While specific comparisons about the placement opportunities between B.Sc in Microbiology and B.Sc in Biotechnology at CMS College of Science and Commerce are not explicitly provided in the search results, it's worth noting that both programs are integral parts of the college's offerings and are aff




Answered 2 weeks ago

Yes, the university offers a full-time MSc in Microbiology over two years. The curriculum of the course is divided into four semesters. Admission to the course is merit-based. Moreover, it is crucial that the applicant fulfils the course-specific eligibility requirements. Thus, the aspirant must hav


Bhumika Khandelwal

Answered a month ago

Admission for M.Sc courses will be closed soon on 31st October. To apply for M.Sc student must have first completed its Bachelor in microbiology and then apply in different colleges. Most of the affiliated colleges in Mysore University will close the admission in October end but Maharaja college and



Tishank Pawar

Answered a month ago

The following colleges provide excellent graduate courses in microbiology, genetics, and ocean sciences: 
India's Microbiology Institutes include Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi University, VIT Vellore, the University of Hyderabad, and Calcutta University.
Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Te



Shaik Aftab

Answered a month ago

For application in MSC. Course in Microbiology in JV college , one needs to fill the application form. The charges are mentioned on the official website of JV COLLEGE. The 2 year course structure owns upto the fees of 17,165 which includes academic charges , practical fee etc. It is not inclisive of




Answered a month ago

India is home to approximately 128 Public-Private Microbiology Colleges and given below are some of the best Public-Private Microbiology Colleges in India:

College Name

Tuition Fee


Tuljaram Chaturchand College Admission

INR 51,500 – INR 77,000


Ahmednagar College Admission

INR 8,800 – INR 75,000


B.K. Birla College Admission

INR 20,900


St. Mary’s College, Thrissur Admission

INR 3,100


EMEA College, Kondotti Admission

INR 3,100 – INR 1.7 lakh



Aneena Abraham

Answered a month ago

There are approximately 128 Private Microbiology Colleges in India and below mentioned are some of them:

College Name

Tuition Fee


VIT Vellore Admission

INR 1.6 lakh


Chandigarh University Admission

INR 2.3 Lacs – INR 3 lakh


Amity University Noida Admission

INR 1.5 Lacs – INR 5.8 lakh


Lovely Professional University Admission

INR 3.2 Lacs – INR 7.2 lakh


JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research Admission

INR 87,100 – INR 1.1 lakh



Aneena Abraham

Answered a month ago

India has almost 264 Government Microbiology Colleges and below mentioned are some of the top Government Microbiology Colleges in India:

College Name

Tuition Fee


University Millia Islamia Admission

INR 1 lakh

JMI Entrance Exam

University of Delhi Admission

INR 10,800


University of Hyderabad Admission

INR 13,500 – INR 14,900


Calcutta University Admission

INR 12,000


Bharathiar University, Coimbatore Admission

INR 21,100



Aneena Abraham

Answered a month ago

The basic eligibility criteria for admission to top Microbiology Colleges in India are mentioned below:

  • Candidates must have completed Class 12 in Science Stream with Physics,  Chemistry,  Maths,  Biology from a recognised board.
  • Candidates should atleast score around 60% (50% for SC/ST/OBC category e



Aneena Abraham

Answered a month ago

Given below are some of the top Microbiology Colleges in India in accordance to their NIRF University Ranking 2023:

College Name

NIRF Ranking 2021

NIRF Ranking 2022

NIRF Ranking 2023

Jamia Millia Islamia




Sathyabama Vellore




University of Delhi




Chandigarh University




JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research




Chandigarh University Noida




Lovely Professional University




Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology





Aneena Abraham

Answered a month ago

Microbiology is needed in various sectors and thus its growing in demand in today's world. Top recruiters for Microbiology are Britannia, Lupin, Bisleri, Apollo, Johnson & Johnson, Cipla, Jubilant, Cafe Coffee Day, Sun Pharma, Emcure Pharmaceuticals, etc. 

Please refer to the table below for the high



Aneena Abraham

Answered a month ago

Yes, there are many common entrance exams to get admitted to Microbiology Colleges in India; below mentioned are some of them:

  • CUET: Common University Entrance Test is a national-level entrance exam conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA) for admission in various fields in UG and PG level.
  • CPGE



Aneena Abraham

Answered a month ago

India is home to around 1,110 Microbiology Colleges of which 577 are private, 264 are government owned and the rest 128 are public-private. CUET, CPGET, ICAR AIEEA, Andhra Pradesh PGCET, UGC NET, NEET MDS, CSIR NET, etc. are some of the common entrance exams to get admitted to Microbiology College



Aneena Abraham

Answered 2 months ago

Opening and Closing rank depends on the category and quota of candidates. For NEET PG Round 1 cutoff 2023, the opening rank was 31053 and closing rank was 31053 for the general category candidates under All India quota. Cut off are different when it comes to other categories or female candidates and



Rashmi Sinha

Answered 2 months ago

NEET PG Round 1, has been released for admission to the MD courses. As per SVIMS Tirupati NEET PG cutoff 2023, the Round 1 closing rank was 31053 for General category candidates in All India quota for MD in Microbiology. MD cut off varies depending on the category and domicile/quota of the applicant



Rashmi Sinha

Answered 2 months ago

Here are some of the best colleges in Bangalore for M.Sc Microbiology:

  • St. Joseph's College (Autonomous) 
  • Kristu Jayanti College
  • M.S. Ramaiah College of Arts, Science and Commerce
  • Jain University
  • Dayananda Sagar University
  • Garden City University


Jatin Kumar

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